Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2011, Article ID 107514, 6 pages
Research Article

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Milk from Central Italy: Levels and Time Trends

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli, 53100 Siena, Italy

Received 1 April 2011; Accepted 25 May 2011

Academic Editors: A. Botta and B. Zhou

Copyright © 2011 Cristiana Guerranti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. P. Laug, F. M. Kunze, and C. S. Prickett, “Occurrence of DDT in human fat and milk,” American Medical Association Archives of Indication Hygiene, vol. 3, pp. 245–251, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Jensen, “Report of a new chemical hazard,” New Scientist, vol. 32, p. 612, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  3. P. J. Landrigan, B. Sonawane, D. Mattison, M. McCally, and A. Garg, “Chemical contaminants in breast milk and their impacts on children's health: an overview,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. A313–A315, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Patandin, P. C. Dagnelie, P. G. H. Mulder et al., “Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: a comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and long-term exposure,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. A. Harris, M. W. Woolridge, and A. W. M. Hay, “Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk,” Chemosphere, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 243–256, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. P. Longnecker, W. J. Rogan, and G. Lucier, “The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 18, pp. 211–244, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. S. Focardi, C. Fossi, C. Leonzio, and R. Romei, “PCB congeners, hexachlorobenzene, and organochlorine insectidices in human fat in Italy,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 644–650, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. Focardi and R. Romei, “Fingerprint of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Chemosphere, vol. 16, no. 10–12, pp. 2315–2320, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Corsolini, S. Focardi, K. Kannan, S. Tanabe, and R. Tatsukawa, “Isomer-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) in red fox and human adipose tissue from central Italy,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Mariottini, S. Aurigi, and S. Focardi, “Congener profile and toxicity assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue of Italians and Chileans,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 67, no. 1–3, pp. 63–71, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Mariottini, C. Guerranti, S. Aurigi, I. Corsi, and S. Focardi, “Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human adipose tissue,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 72–78, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Focardi, C. Fossi, and E. Fossi, “Livelli di pesticidi clorurati e policlorobifenili nel latte umano,” Rivista Italiana di Pediatria, vol. 10, pp. 286–290, 1984 (Italian). View at Google Scholar
  13. C. Guerranti, Indagine sulla presenza di composti organoalogenati in prodotti alimentari e nella dieta della popolazione dell’area senese, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Siena, Siena, Italy, 2007.
  14. C. Guerranti, M. Mariottini, and S. E. Focardi, “Dietary exposure to PBDEs and levels in breast milk of women living in central Italy,” Organohalogen Compound, vol. 70, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  15. C. Guerranti, G. Perra, M. Renzi, S. Focardi, and S. Focardi, “Chlorinated contaminants in extra-virgin olive oil from central Italy,” Journal of Food Lipids, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 190–197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Mangani, Composti perfluorurati in campioni di sangue e siero di donne affette da endometriosi, Degree dissertation, University of Siena, Siena, Italy, 2007.
  17. I. Corsi, M. Mariottini, A. Badesso et al., “Contamination and sub-lethal toxicological effects of persistent organic pollutants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 550, no. 1, pp. 237–249, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. J. Riordan, K. Gill-Hopple, and J. Angeron, “Indicators of effective breastfeeding and estimates of breast milk intake,” Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 406–412, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. O. I. Kalantzi, F. L. Martin, G. O. Thomas et al., “Different levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated compounds in breast milk from two U.K. regions,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1085–1091, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Egorov, G. Mikhailov, and L. Altshul, “Fish consumption and breast milk concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the Astrakhan region, Russia,” Organohalogen Compound, vol. 64, pp. 91–94, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Becher, L. Småstuen Haug, T. Nicolaysen, A. Polder, and J. Utne Skaare, “Temporal and spatial trends of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs in Norwegian breast milk—results from three rounds of who co-ordinated studies,” Organohalogen Compound, vol. 56, pp. 325–328, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  22. C. K. C. Wong, K. M. Leung, B. H. T. Poon, C. Y. Lan, and M. H. Wong, “Organochlorine hydrocarbons in human breast milk collected in Hong Kong and Guangzhou,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 364–372, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. E. Dewailly, J. P. Weber, S. Gingras, and C. Laliberte, “Coplanar PCBs in human milk in the province of Quebec, Canada: are they more toxic than dioxin for breast fed infants?” Chemosphere, vol. 23, pp. 1831–1835, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  24. B. G. Loganathan, S. Tanabe, Y. Hidaka, M. Kawano, H. Hidaka, and R. Tatsukawa, “Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue from Japan, 1928–1985,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  25. V. A. McFarland and J. U. Clarke, “Environmental occurrence, abundance, and potential toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners: considerations for a congener-specific analysis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 81, pp. 225–239, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Safe, “Toxicology, structure-function relationship, and human and environmental health impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls: progress and problems,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 100, pp. 259–268, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Van Den Berg, L. Birnbaum, A. T. C. Bosveld et al., “Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 775–792, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  28. WHO, “Polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls,” World Health Organisation Geneva, vol. 42-43, pp. 65–70, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  29. D. Davies and J. Mes, “Comparison of the residue levels of some organochlorine compounds in breast milk of the general and indigenous Canadian populations,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 743–749, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. A. Jensen, “Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) in human milk, blood and adipose tissue,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 259–293, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Mes and L. Marchand, “Comparison of some specific PCB isomers in human and monkey milk,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 39, pp. 736–742, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  32. K. Teschke, S. J. Kelly, M. Wiens et al., “Background levels of PCBs in residents of British Columbia, Canada,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 842–851, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. Duarte-Davidson, S. C. Wilson, and K. C. Jones, “PCBs and other organochlorines in human tissue samples from the Welsh population: I-adipose,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  34. O. V. Tsydenova, A. Sudaryanto, N. Kajiwara, T. Kunisue, V. B. Batoev, and S. Tanabe, “Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 225–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. FAO-WHO, “Joint Meeting on Pesticides Residues. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB). WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3,” 1973,
  36. FAO-WHO, “Pesticide residues in food—1984 evaluations, Plant Production and Protection,” vol. 67. Rome, Italy, 1985.
  37. FAO-WHO, “Pesticide residues in food—2000. Evaluations—part II—Toxicology. Joint FAO-WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues,” 2001,
  38. T. Yakushiji, I. Watanabe, K. Kuwabara, S. Yoshida, K. Kojama, and N. Kunita, “Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in human milk collected in OsakaPrefecture from 1972 to 1977,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 45, pp. 567–571, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. T. Wilson, Farmaci e Allattamento, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Rome, Italy, 1978.
  40. K. J. Aronson, A. B. Miller, C. G. Wooleott et al., “Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2000. View at Google Scholar