Table of Contents
ISRN Pulmonology
Volume 2011, Article ID 142518, 6 pages
Review Article

Toll-Like Receptors Dysregulation after Influenza Virus Infection: Insights into Pathogenesis of Subsequent Bacterial Pneumonia

1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2
3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
4National Laboratory for HIV Viral Immunology and National HIV and Retrovirology Laboratories, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3E 3R2

Received 23 March 2011; Accepted 20 April 2011

Academic Editors: T. Goldmann and E. Lecuona

Copyright © 2011 Yoav Keynan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The innate immune system utilizes an intricate network to aid in fighting foreign invaders. Recent insight and understanding of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been critical in providing key information about early responses to infection, and more recently, understanding dysregulation of TLRs has shed light on pathogenic states. This paper addresses the importance of innate immunity and TLR regulation of immune responses to the presence of influenza infection and its role in the subsequent bacterial infections.