Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2011, Article ID 161740, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/161740
Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Organic Cationic Transporter 3 in Depressed and Nondepressed Subjects

Bernard J. Dunn School of Pharmacy, Shenandoah University, 1775 North Sector Court, Winchester, VA 22601, USA

Received 11 June 2011; Accepted 29 June 2011

Academic Editors: V. C. Abilio and P. S. D'Aquila

Copyright © 2011 Nina Hengen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Berton and E. J. Nestler, “New approaches to antidepressant drug discovery: beyond monoamines,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 137–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Haenisch and H. Bönisch, “Depression and antidepressants: insights from knockout of dopamine, serotonin or noradrenaline re-uptake transporters,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 352–368, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Frazer, “Pharmacology of antidepressants,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 17, supplement 1, no. 2, pp. 2S–18S, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Masson, C. Sagné, M. Hamon, and S. El Mestikawy, “Neurotransmitter transporters in the central nervous system,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 439–464, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. G. Amara and M. J. Kuhar, “Neurotransmitter transporters: recent progress,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 16, pp. 73–93, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Rudnick and J. Clark, “From synapse to vesicle: the reuptake and storage of biogenic amine neurotransmitters,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1144, no. 3, pp. 249–263, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Koepsell, K. Lips, and C. Volk, “Polyspecific organic cation transporters: structure, function, physiological roles, and biopharmaceutical implications,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1227–1251, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Amphoux, V. Vialou, E. Drescher et al., “Differential pharmacological in vitro properties of organic cation transporters and regional distribution in rat brain,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 941–952, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Vialou, L. Balasse, J. Callebert, J. M. Launay, B. Giros, and S. Gautron, “Altered aminergic neurotransmission in the brain of organic cation transporter 3-deficient mice,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 1471–1482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. J. Gasser, M. Orchinik, I. Raju, and C. A. Lowry, “Distribution of organic cation transporter 3, a corticosterone-sensitive monoamine transporter, in the rat brain,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 512, no. 4, pp. 529–555, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Feng, B. Mo, P. L. Johnson, M. Orchinik, C. A. Lowry, and K. J. Renner, “Local inhibition of organic cation transporters increases extracellular serotonin in the medial hypothalamus,” Brain Research, vol. 1063, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. J. Gasser, C. A. Lowry, and M. Orchinik, “Corticosterone-sensitive monoamine transport in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus: potential role for organic cation transporter 3 in stress-induced modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 34, pp. 8758–8766, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. J. Nestler, M. Barrot, R. J. DiLeone, A. J. Eisch, S. J. Gold, and L. M. Monteggia, “Neurobiology of depression,” Neuron, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Wu, R. Kekuda, W. Huang et al., “Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 49, pp. 32776–32786, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Hayer-Zillgen, M. Brüss, and H. Bönisch, “Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 829–836, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. E. Hill, K. Makky, L. Shrestha, C. J. Hillard, and P. J. Gasser, “Natural and synthetic corticosteroids inhibit uptake2-mediated transport in CNS neurons,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 306–311, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Cui, R. Aras, W. V. Christian et al., “The organic cation transporter-3 is a pivotal modulator of neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 19, pp. 8043–8048, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Wultsch, G. Grimberg, A. Schmitt et al., “Decreased anxiety in mice lacking the organic cation transporter 3,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 689–697, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. L. Murphy, A. Lerner, G. Rudnick, and K. P. Lesch, “Serotonin transporter: gene, genetic disorders, and pharmacogenetics,” Molecular Interventions, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 109–123, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. P. Lesch and L. Gutknecht, “Pharmacogenetics of the serotonin transporter,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1062–1073, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Zill, R. Engel, T. C. Baghai et al., “Identification of a naturally occurring polymorphism in the promoter region of the norepinephrine transporter and analysis in major depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 489–493, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee et al., “Association between norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism and major depression,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 174–177, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Inoue, K. Itoh, K. Yoshida, T. Shimizu, and T. Suzuki, “Positive association between T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene and susceptibility to major depressive disorder in a Japanese population,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 301–304, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. A. Trégouët, I. R. König, J. Erdmann et al., “Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease,” Nature Genetics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 283–285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Sallinen, M. A. Kaunisto, C. Forsblom et al., “Association of the SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes encoding organic cation transporters with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 296–304, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Aoyama, N. Takahashi, K. Kitaichi et al., “Association between gene polymorphisms of SLC22A3 and methamphetamine use disorder,” Alcoholism, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1644–1649, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Lazar, S. Walitza, A. Jetter et al., “Novel mutations of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter gene in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 35–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Lazar, D. Gründemann, R. Berkels, D. Taubert, T. Zimmermann, and E. Schömig, “Genetic variability of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter EMT (SLC22A3),” Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 226–230, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. T. Nies, H. Koepsell, S. Winter et al., “Expression of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) is affected by genetic factors and cholestasis in human liver,” Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1227–1240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Sakata, N. Anzai, T. Kimura et al., “Functional analysis of human organic cation transporter OCT3 (SLC22A3) polymorphisms,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 263–266, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. C. Daws, “Unfaithful neurotransmitter transporters: focus on serotonin uptake and implications for antidepressant efficacy,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 89–99, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Baganz, R. Horton, K. Martin, A. Holmes, and L. C. Daws, “Repeated swim impairs serotonin clearance via a corticosterone-sensitive mechanism: organic cation transporter 3, the smoking gun,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 30, no. 45, pp. 15185–15195, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Feng, C. A. Lowry, J. L. Lukkes, M. Orchinik, G. L. Forster, and K. J. Renner, “Organic cation transporter inhibition increases medial hypothalamic serotonin under basal conditions and during mild restraint,” Brain Research, vol. 1326, pp. 105–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. L. Baganz, R. E. Horton, A. S. Calderon et al., “Organic cation transporter 3: keeping the brake on extracellular serotonin in serotonin-transporter-deficient mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 48, pp. 18976–18981, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Kitaichi, M. Fukuda, H. Nakayama et al., “Behavioral changes following antisense oligonucleotide-induced reduction of organic cation transporter-3 in mice,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 382, no. 1-2, pp. 195–200, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Fava, “Diagnosis and definition of treatment-resistant depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 649–659, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. J. Schildkraut and J. J. Mooney, “Toward a rapidly acting antidepressant: the normetanephrine and extraneuronal monoamine transporter (Uptake 2) hypothesis,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 909–911, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus