Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2011, Article ID 168712, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/168712
Research Article

High Expression of Complement Component 5 (C5) at Tumor Site Associates with Superior Survival in Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumour Patients

1Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute and HUSLAB, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00014, Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Information and Computer Science, Aalto University School of Science, 02015, Espoo, Finland
3Laboratorio di Ricerca Oncologica, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 40136, Bologna, Italy
4Hematology Research Unit, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 700, 00290, Helsinki, Finland

Received 1 July 2011; Accepted 24 July 2011

Academic Editors: B. Comin-Anduix and K. Sonoda

Copyright © 2011 Suvi Savola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Unlike in most adult-onset cancers, an association between typical paediatric neoplasms and inflammatory triggers is rare. We studied whether immune system-related genes are activated and have prognostic significance in Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs). Method. Data analysis was performed on gene expression profiles of 44 ESFT patients, 11 ESFT cell lines, and 18 normal skeletal muscle samples. Differential expression of 238 inflammation and 299 macrophage-related genes was analysed by 𝑑 -test, and survival analysis was performed according to gene expression. Results. Inflammatory genes are activated in ESFT patient samples, as 38 of 238 (16%) inflammatory genes were upregulated ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) when compared to cell lines. This inflammatory gene activation was characterized by significant enrichment of macrophage-related gene expression with 58 of 299 (19%) of genes upregulated ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) . High expression of complement component 5 (C5) correlated with better event-free ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 ) and overall survival ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 4 ) in a dose-dependent manner. C5 and its receptor C5aR1 expression was verified at protein level by immunohistochemistry on an independent ESFT tumour tissue microarray. Conclusion. Immune system-related gene activation is observed in ESFT patient samples, and prognostically significant inflammatory genes (C5, JAK1, and IL8) for ESFT were identified.