Table of Contents
ISRN Organic Chemistry
Volume 2011, Article ID 184754, 11 pages
Research Article

Synthesis, Physiochemical Properties, Photochemical Probe, and Antimicrobial Effects of Novel Norfloxacin Analogues

1Joint Supervision Program, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80215, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 , Saudi Arabia
4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 , Saudi Arabia

Received 19 December 2010; Accepted 10 January 2011

Academic Editor: G. Li

Copyright Β© 2011 Dina A. Bakhotmah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The emerging resistance to antimicrobial drugs demands the synthesis of new remedies for microbial infections. Attempts have been made to prepare new compounds by modifications in the quinolone structure. An important method for the synthesis of new quinolone is using Vilsmeier approach but has its own limitations. The present work aimed to synthesize novel norfloxacin analogues using modified Vilsmeier approach and conduct preliminary investigations for the evaluation of their physicochemical properties, photochemical probe, and antimicrobial effects. In an effort to synthesize norfloxacin analogues, only 7-bromo-6-N-benzyl piperazinyl-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid was isolated using Vilsmeier approach at high temperature, where 𝑁 , 𝑁 ξ…ž -bis-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-oxalamide and 𝑁 , 𝑁 ξ…ž -bis-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-malonamide were obtained at low temperature. Correlation results showed that lipophilicity, molecular mass, and electronic factors might influence the activity. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects against important pathogens, for their potential use in the inhibition of vitiligo.