Table of Contents
ISRN Communications and Networking
Volume 2011, Article ID 324758, 5 pages
Research Article

Validation of Three-Dimensional Ray-Tracing Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Propagations

Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 29 April 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011

Academic Editor: V. Tralli

Copyright © 2011 Majdi Salem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A 3D ray tracing simulator has been developed for indoor wireless networks. The simulator uses geometrical optics (GOs) to propagate the electromagnetic waves inside the buildings. The prediction technique takes into account multiple reflections and transmissions of the propagated waves. An interpolation prediction method (IPM) has been proposed to predict the propagated signal and to make the ray-tracing algorithm faster, accurate, and simple. The measurements have been achieved by using a single Wi-Fi network access point as a transmitter and a laptop as a receiver. Measured data had been collected at different positions in indoor environment and compared with predicted signals. The comparison of the predicted and measured received signals gave root mean square error of 2.96 dB and std. deviation of 2.98 dB.