Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 365894, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/365894
Research Article

Assessment of the Vitamin B12 Status of Pregnant Women in Nigeria Using Plasma Holotranscobalamin

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC08 4670, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, PMB 2076, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos, PMB 2076, Nigeria
4TriCore Reference Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87102, USA

Received 16 March 2011; Accepted 18 May 2011

Academic Editor: M. Lappas

Copyright © 2011 Dorothy J. VanderJagt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. R. Gaber, M. K. Farag, S. E. T. Soliman, H. T. El-Bassyouni, and G. El-Kamah, “Maternal vitamin B12 and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in Egyptian patients,” Clinical Laboratory, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 69–75, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. Suarez, K. Hendricks, M. Felkner, and E. Gunter, “Maternal serum B12 levels and risk for neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. G. Ray, P. R. Wyatt, M. D. Thompson et al., “Vitamin B12 and the risk of neural tube defects in a folic-acid-fortified population,” Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 362–366, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. A. M. Molloy, P. N. Kirke, J. F. Troendle et al., “Maternal vitamin B12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification,” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 917–923, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. S. Muthayya, A. V. Kurpad, C. P. Duggan et al., “Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 791–801, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. E. Chauvet, M. Youssef, R. Boukhari, W. El Guindi, and G. Carles, “Symptoms of HELLP syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency: report of seven cases,” Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction, vol. 38, pp. 226–230, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  7. U. Hübner, A. Alwan, M. Jouma, M. Tabbaa, H. Schorr, and W. Herrmann, “Low serum vitamin B12 is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in Syrian women,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1265–1269, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. M. F. Reznikoff-Etiévant, J. Zittoun, C. Vaylet, P. Pernet, and J. Milliez, “Low Vitamin B12 level as a risk factor for very early recurrent abortion,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 156–159, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. L. H. Allen, “Vitamin B12 metabolism and status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 352, pp. 173–186, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Hay, T. Clausen, A. Whitelaw et al., “Maternal folate and cobalamin status predicts vitamin status in newborns and 6-month-old infants,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 557–564, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. K. M. Jones, M. Ramirez-Zea, C. Zuleta, and L. H. Allen, “Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 1307–1313, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  12. R. Obeid, W. Munz, M. Jäger, W. Schmidt, and W. Herrmann, “Biochemical indexes of the B vitamins in cord serum are predicted by maternal B vitamin status,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 133–139, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  13. E. Zengin, N. Sarper, and S. Çaki Kiliç, “Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. E. B. Casella, M. Valente, J. M. de Navarro, and F. Kok, “Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy as a cause of developmental regression,” Brain and Development, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 592–594, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. T. Honzik, M. Adamovicova, V. Smolka, M. Magner, E. Hruba, and J. Zeman, “Clinical presentation and metabolic consequences in 40 breastfed infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency—what have we learned?” European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 488–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. C. Neumann, D. M. Harris, and L. M. Rogers, “Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality and function in children in the developing world,” Nutrition Research, vol. 22, no. 1-2, pp. 193–220, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. V. Herbert, “Vitamin B-12: plant sources, requirements, and assay,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 852–858, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. C. Antony, “Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. K. Black, L. H. Allen, G. H. Pelto, M. P. de Mata, and A. Chavez, “Iron, vitamin B-12 and folate status in Mexico: associated factors in men and women and during pregnancy and lactation,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 124, no. 8, pp. 1179–1188, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. P. Stabler and R. H. Allen, “Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 24, pp. 299–326, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. J. M. Xavier, F. F. Costa, J. M. Annichino-Bizzacchi, and S. T. O. Saad, “High frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in a Brazilian population,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1191–1197, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. M. N. García-Casal, C. Osorio, M. Landaeta et al., “High prevalence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiencies in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women in Venezuela,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1064–1070, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. D. J. VanderJagt, H. S. Brock, G. S. Melah, A. U. El-Nafaty, M. J. Crossey, and R. H. Glew, “Nutritional factors associated with anaemia in pregnant women in northern Nigeria,” Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. R. Carmel, R. Green, D. S. Rosenblatt, and D. Watkins, “Update on cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine,” Hematology/The Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program, pp. 62–81, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. J. Vanderjagt, I. A. O. Ujah, A. Patel et al., “Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 288–295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. S. P. Stabler, J. Lindenbaum, and R. H. Allen, “The use of homocysteine and other metabolites in the specific diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1266S–1272S, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. S. Karnaze and R. Carmel, “Neurologic and evoked potential abnormalities in subtle cobalamin deficiency states, including deficiency without anemia and with normal absorption of free cobalamin,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1008–1012, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Koebnick, U. A. Heins, P. C. Dagnelie et al., “Longitudinal concentrations of vitamin B12 and vitamin B12-binding proteins during uncomplicated pregnancy,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 928–933, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  29. N. Milman, K. E. Byg, T. Bergholt, L. Eriksen, and A. M. Hvas, “Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 Danish women,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 521–525, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. R. Obeid, A. L. Morkbak, W. Munz, E. Nexo, and W. Herrmann, “The cobalamin-binding proteins transcobalamin and haptocorrin in maternal and cord blood sera at birth,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 263–269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. I. Chanarin, The Megaloblastic Anaemias, Blackwell Scientific, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1990.
  32. B. Seetharam and R. R. Yammani, “Cobalamin transport proteins and their cell-surface receptors,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 18, pp. 1–18, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. N. Fedosov, “Metabolic signs of vitamin B12 deficiency in humans: computational model and its implications for diagnostics,” Metabolism, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1124–1138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. W. Herrmann, R. Obeid, H. Schorr, and J. Geisel, “Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1478–1488, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. R. Obeid and W. Herrmann, “Holotranscobalamin in laboratory diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency compared to total cobalamin and methylmalonic acid,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1746–1750, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. A. M. Hvas, C. H. Gravholt, and E. Nexo, “Circadian variation of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) and related markers,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 760–764, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. A. L. Morkbak, A. M. Hvas, N. Milman, and E. Nexo, “Holotranscobalamin remains unchanged during pregnancy. Longitudinal changes of cobalamins and their binding proteins during pregnancy and post-partum,” Haematologica, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1711–1712, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. O. Frisancho, V. Ulloa, W. Ruiz et al., “Megaloblastic anemia associated with chronic diarrhea . A prospective and multicenter study in Lima,” Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 189–195, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  39. K. Hjelt, A. Paerregaard, and P. A. Krasilnikoff, “Giardiasis: haematological status and the absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. V. Allen and D. S. Ridley, “Further observations on the formol-ether concentration technique for faecal parasites,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 545–546, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  41. D. P. Casemore, “Laboratory methods for diagnosing cryptosporidiosis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 445–451, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  42. “CDC criteria for anemia in children and childbearing-aged women,” CDC—Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), vol. 38, p. 400, 1989.
  43. C. A. Burtis and E. R. Ashwood, Eds., Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2001.
  44. F. Bamonti, G. A. Moscato, C. Novembrino et al., “Determination of serum holotranscobalamin concentrations with the AxSYM active B12 assay: cut-off point evaluation in the clinical laboratory,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 249–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. E. R. J. Giugliani, S. M. Jorge, and A. L. Goncalves, “Serum vitamin B12 levels in parturients, in the intervillous space of the placenta and in full-term newborns and their interrelationships with folate levels,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 330–335, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. M. Murphy, A. M. Molloy, P. M. Ueland et al., “Longitudinal study of the effect of pregnancy on maternal and fetal cobalamin status in healthy women and their offspring,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 8, pp. 1863–1867, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  47. G. Hay, T. Clausen, A. Whitelaw et al., “Maternal folate and cobalamin status predicts vitamin status in newborns and 6-month-old infants,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 557–564, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. L. H. Allen, “Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1206S–1212S, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. J. Otten, J. P. Hellwig, and L. D. Meyers, Eds., Dietary Reference Intakes. The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  50. D. R. Miller, B. L. Specker, M. L. Ho, and E. J. Norman, “Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 524–529, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  51. World Health Organization, “The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding,” Report of an Expert Consultation WHO/NHD/01.09, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  52. S. M. Graham, O. M. Arvela, and G. A. Wise, “Long-term neurologic consequences of nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 121, no. 5 I, pp. 710–714, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. D. K. Dror and L. H. Allen, “Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 250–255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. E. M. Guerra-Shinohara, O. E. Morita, S. Peres et al., “Low ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine is associated with vitamin deficiency in Brazilian pregnant women and newborns,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1312–1321, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. L. Mills and C. Signore, “Neural tube defect rates before and after food fortification with folic acid,” Birth Defects Research Part A—Clinical and Molecular Teratology, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 844–845, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. K. I. Airede, “Neural tube defects in the middle belt of Nigeria,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  57. R. O. Ugwu, A. U. Eneh, and R. S. Oruamabo, “Neural tube defects in a university teaching hospital in southern Nigeria: trends and outcome,” Nigerian Journal of Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 368–371, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  58. A. K. Njamnshi, V. D. P. Djientcheu, A. Lekoubou et al., “Neural tube defects are rare among black Americans but not in sub-Saharan black Africans: the case of Yaounde—Cameroon,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 270, no. 1-2, pp. 13–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  59. International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Annual Report of 2006 with data for 2004, http://www.icbdsr.org/filebank/documents/Report2006.pdf.
  60. D. J. Cichowicz and B. Shane, “Mammalian folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase. 2. Substrate specificity and kinetic properties,” Biochemistry, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 513–521, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  61. R. H. Glew, C. A. Conn, T. A. VanderJagt et al., “Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diet of urban and rural dwellers in northern Nigeria,” Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 357–369, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  62. J. J. Otten, J. P. Hellwig, and L. D. Meyers, Eds., Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  63. M. V. Bor, K. M. von Castel-Roberts, G. P. A. Kauwell et al., “Daily intake of 4 to 7 μg dietary vitamin B-12 is associated with steady concentrations of vitamin B-12-related biomarkers in a healthy young population,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 571–577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. M. V. Bor, E. Lydeking-Olsen, J. Møller, and E. Nexø, “A daily intake of approximately 6 μg vitamin B-12 appears to saturate all the vitamin B-12-related variables in Danish postmenopausal women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. Vogiatzoglou, A. D. Smith, E. Nurk et al., “Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in the general population: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 1078–1087, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  66. http://www.undp.org/mdg.