Table of Contents
ISRN Dermatology
Volume 2011, Article ID 369603, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/369603
Research Article

Antimicrobial Active Clothes Display No Adverse Effects on the Ecological Balance of the Healthy Human Skin Microflora

Institute for Hygiene and Biotechnology, Hohenstein Institutes, Schloss Hohenstein, 74357 Boennigheim, Germany

Received 13 January 2011; Accepted 27 February 2011

Academic Editors: Y. Ohya, C. Ferrándiz, and A. Zalewska

Copyright © 2011 Dirk Hoefer and Timo R. Hammer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Ramachandran, K. Rajendrakumar, and R. Rajendran, “Antimicrobial textiles—an overview,” Journal of the Institution of Engineers, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 42–47, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Gao and R. Cranston, “Recent advances in antimicrobial treatments of textiles,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 60–72, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Gauger, S. Fischer, M. Mempel et al., “Efficacy and functionality of silver-coated textiles in patients with atopic eczema,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 534–541, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. D. Leung, A. M. Schiltz, C. F. Hall, and A. H. Liu, “Severe atopic dermatitis is associated with a high burden of environmental Staphylococcus aureus,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 789–793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Hauser, B. Wuethrich, and L. Matter, “Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization in atopic dermatitis patients,” Dermatologica, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Ricci, A. Patrizi, F. Bellini, and M. Medri, “Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 127–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Ricci, A. Patrizi, P. Mandrioli et al., “Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of a special silk textile in the treatment of atopic dermatitis,” Dermatology, vol. 213, no. 3, pp. 224–227, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Kramer, P. Guggenbichler, P. Heldt et al., “Hygienic relevance and risk assessment of antimicrobial-impregnated textiles,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 78–109, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. D. Jones, “Bacterial resistance and topical antimicrobial wash products,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 351–363, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. B. G. Lansdown, “Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 17–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. B. Lansdown, “Silver. I: its antibacterial properties and mechanism of action,” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 125–130, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. B. Lansdown and A. Williams, “How safe is silver in wound care?” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 131–136, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Silver, “Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 341–353, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, “Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America,” MMWR. Recommendations and Reports, vol. 51, no. RR-16, pp. 1–45, quiz CE1-4, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Sullivan, C. Edlund, and C. E. Nord, “Effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecological balance of human microflora,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 101–114, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. R. Roth and W. D. James, “Microbiology of the skin: resident flora, ecology, infection,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 367–390, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. R. Roth and W. D. James, “Microbial ecology of the skin,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 42, pp. 441–464, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Williamson and A. M. Kligman, “A new method for the quantitative investigation of cutaneous bacteria,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 498–503, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Runeman, G. Rybo, U. Forsgren-Brusk, O. Larkö, P. Larsson, and J. Faergemann, “The vulvar skin microenvironment: influence of different panty liners on temperature, pH and micoroflora,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 277–284, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Elsner, “Antimicrobials and the skin physiological and pathological flora,” Current Problems in Dermatology, vol. 33, pp. 35–41, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Chopra, “The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern?” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 587–590, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Norm, “Textiles—determination of antibacterial activity of antibacterial finished products,” ISO 20743:2007, 2007.
  23. R. J. White, “An historical overview of the use of silver in wound management,” British Journal of Community Nursing, vol. 6, no. 8 Silver supplement 1, pp. 1–8, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Ugur and O. Ceylan, “Occurrence of resistance to antibiotics, metals, and plasmids in clinical strains of Staphylococcus spp,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. J. O'Neill and I. Chopra, “Preclinical evaluation of novel antibacterial agents by microbiological and molecular techniques,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1045–1063, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. A. Grice, H. H. Kong, G. Renaud et al., “A diversity profile of the human skin microbiota,” Genome Research, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Dekio, M. Sakamoto, H. Hayashi, M. Amagai, M. Suematsu, and Y. Benno, “Characterization of skin microbiota in patients with atopic dermatitis and in normal subjects using 16S rRNA gene-based comprehensive analysis,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 1675–1683, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Chevalier, G. M. Mercier, and A. Cremieux, “Evaluation of a standard scrubbing method for the recovery of aerobic skin flora,” Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Microbiology, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 349–358, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. Edwards-Jones, “The benefits of silver in hygiene, personal care and healthcare,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 147–152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. A. Lilly, E. J. L. Lowbury, and M. D. Wilkins, “Limits to progressive reduction of resident skin bacteria by disinfection,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 382–385, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. L. Larson, C. A. N. Hughes, J. D. Pyrek, S. M. Sparks, E. U. Cagatay, and J. M. Bartkus, “Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 513–521, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. C. Cole, R. M. Addison, J. R. Rubino et al., “Investigation of antibiotic and antibacterial agent cross-resistance in target bacteria from homes of antibacterial product users and nonusers,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 664–676, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. C. Paulino, C. H. Tseng, B. E. Strober, and M. J. Blaser, “Molecular analysis of fungal microbiota in samples from healthy human skin and psoriatic lesions,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2933–2941, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. E. Till, V. Goulden, W. J. Cunliffe, and K. T. Holland, “The cutaneous microflora of adolescent, persistent and late-onset acne patients does not differ,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 885–892, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. A. Hartmann, “The influence of various factors on the human resident skin flora,” Seminars in Dermatology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 305–308, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Mason, “Fabrics for atopic dermatitis,” The Journal of Family Health Care, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 63–65, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. E. Love and S. T. Nedorost, “Fabric preferences of atopic dermatitis patients,” Dermatitis, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. U. C. Hipler, P. Elsner, and J. W. Fluhr, “Antifungal and antibacterial properties of a silver-loaded cellulosic fiber,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 156–163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus