Table of Contents
ISRN Dentistry
Volume 2011, Article ID 497850, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/497850
Review Article

Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: A Review of the Molecular, Immune, and Inflammatory Features

1Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 19 May 2011; Accepted 13 June 2011

Academic Editors: M. Del Fabbro and S. E. Widmalm

Copyright © 2011 Jôice Dias Corrêa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressant, and calcium channel blockers. GO is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in gingival connective tissues, particularly collagenous components, with varying degrees of inflammation. One of the main drugs associated with GO is the antiepileptic phenytoin, which affects gingival tissues by altering extracellular matrix metabolism. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of such drug-induced GO remains fulfilled by some contradictory findings. This paper aims to present the most relevant studies regarding the molecular, immune, and inflammatory aspects of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth.