Table of Contents
ISRN Surgery
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 518924, 7 pages
Research Article

Collateral Tissue Damage by Several Types of Coagulation (Monopolar, Bipolar, Cold Plasma and Ultrasonic) in a Minimally Invasive, Perfused Liver Model

1Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Center of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Hospital Cuxhaven—University of Hanover Teaching Hospital, 27474 Cuxhaven, Germany
2Medical Engineering, Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany

Received 21 March 2011; Accepted 10 May 2011

Academic Editor: S. Huerta

Copyright © 2011 Thomas Carus and Klaas Rackebrandt. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hemostasis in minimally invasive surgery causes tissue damage. Regardless of the method of production of thermal energy, a quick and safe coagulation is essential for its clinical use. In this study we examined the tissue damage in the isolated perfused pig liver using monopolar, bipolar, cold plasma, and ultrasonic coagulation. In a minimally invasive in vitro setup, a 2-3 cm slice of the edge of the perfused pig liver was resected. After hemostasis was achieved, liver tissue of the coagulated area was given to histopathological examination. The depth of tissue necrosis, the height of tissue loss, and the time until sufficient hemostasis was reached were analyzed. The lowest risk for extensive tissue damage could be shown for the bipolar technique, combined with the highest efficiency in hemostasis. Using cold plasma, coagulation time was longer with a deeper tissue damage. Monopolar technique showed the worst results with the highest tissue damage and a long coagulation time. Ultrasonic coagulation was not useful for coagulation of large bleeding areas. In summary, bipolar technique led to less tissue damage and best coagulation results in our minimally invasive model. These results could be important to recommend bipolar coagulation for clinical use in minimally invasive surgery.