Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 524365, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/524365
Research Article

Feasibility of Repurposing the Polyanionic Microbicide, PPCM, for Prophylaxis against HIV Transmission during ART

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W. Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2AndroJek, Inc., 2145 W. Davie boulevard, Suite 103, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312, USA
3Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W. Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 29 September 2010; Accepted 19 October 2010

Academic Editors: M. A. Dhont, I. J. Kadoch, and T. Tanbo

Copyright © 2011 Robert A. Anderson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

HIV-serodiscordant couples wishing to conceive often seek assisted reproduction, during which spermatozoa from infected men are washed to minimize the risk of HIV transmission to partner and fetus. We sought to improve this method by adding a microbicide, PPCM, as an HIV prophylactic. HIV-1 (BaL) inhibition by PPCM appears irreversible and independent of added Ca2+. Without added Ca2+, PPCM (≤10 mg/mL, ≤90 min), a stimulus of Ca2+-dependent acrosomal loss, has no effect on sperm motility, forward progression, or acrosomal status. PPCM-treated (10 mg/mL) sperm retain their ability to acrosome react when Ca2+ is added. Sperm DNA integrity/function is unaffected by PPCM (≤10 mg/mL). Adding PPCM (5 mg/mL, 30 min) to washing media reduces infectivity (viral antigen p24 and RNA) of ex-vivo HIV-infected semen by 3-4 Logs compared with washing alone. Sperm washing with appropriate extracellular Ca2+ levels and PPCM is significantly more effective than washing alone at reducing HIV infectivity.