Table of Contents
ISRN Communications and Networking
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 549706, 10 pages
Research Article

Distributed Space-Time/Frequency Coding Schemes for Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access Systems

Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf 32952, Egypt

Received 21 December 2010; Accepted 9 February 2011

Academic Editor: A. Maaref

Copyright © 2011 A. Y. Al-nahari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system is a new system that was adopted in the standardization of the upcoming 3GPP long-term evolution (LTE). Designing diversity-achieving schemes for the SC-FDMA system is a challenging task. The codes adopted should not affect the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) among other constraints. In this paper, we consider the design of cooperative diversity schemes for SC-FDMA systems in the uplink direction. Specifically, two relay-assisted distributed space-time/frequency codes are proposed. The proposed distributed space-frequency code (SFC) achieves full spatial diversity in the uplink fast-fading channels, where a diversity of order three can be achieved. The proposed code keeps a low PAPR, which is a good feature of the system. A minimum mean square error (MMSE) decoder is used at the receiver of the destination node. Moreover, we propose a bandwidth-efficient distributed space-time code (STC) for slow-fading relay channels. A decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is used at the relay node, and the possibility of erroneous decoding is taken into account. Simulation results demonstrate the performance improvement of the proposed schemes.