Table of Contents
ISRN Immunology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 584682, 6 pages
Research Article

Consumption of Galactooligosaccharides together with Probiotics Stimulates the In Vitro Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Proliferation and IFNγ Production in Healthy Men

1Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Valio Ltd., R&D, P.O. Box 30, FIN-00039 Helsinki, Finland
3STAT Consulting, Vahverokatu 6, FIN-37130 Nokia, Finland
4Immune Response Unit, Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 104, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland
5Folkhälsan Research Center, University of Helsinki, Biomedicum, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland

Received 29 August 2011; Accepted 20 September 2011

Academic Editors: A. Boon and C. Faveeuw

Copyright © 2011 Reetta Holma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Probiotics and prebiotics modify the intestinal environment and could have immunomodulatory effects. The proliferation of spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their production of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, transforming growth factor-β1, and interferon-γ (IFNγ) were determined in eighteen men at the baseline and during a 2-week period of probiotics (mixture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99) and galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) (3.8 g/day). The spontaneous and stimulated proliferation of PBMC increased from the baseline during probiotics+GOS ( ๐‘ƒ < 0 . 0 0 1 ). The secretion of IFNγ, but not other cytokines, by stimulated PBMC increased during the same period ( ๐‘ƒ < 0 . 0 5 ). In conclusion, the consumption of this probiotic mixture including GOS appears to increase the capacity of PBMC to proliferate and release IFNγ selectively in healthy men.