International Scholarly Research Notices / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Benefits of Supplementary Fat in Feed Rations for Ruminants with Particular Focus on Reducing Levels of Methane Production

Table 2

Collated data pertaining to the effect of diverse dietary fatty acids on methane production in large and small ruminants. 𝑛 DurationRation Fat source (% of DM)ResultsMethodConclusionReferences
Forage/conc. Methane (%) NH3 VFA Propionate Acetate Butyrate Micro protein Protozoa Methanogens pH DMI Digestibility

1Heifers4193 d50/50CO (10%)βˆ’18↓n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.SF6CO: 28% reduction[12]
Charolais/250 g/dβˆ’14.9digestibility n.e.
LimosinCM (10%)↓n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.↓
in vivo250 g/d
2Heifers1635 d50/50CO (14%)βˆ’13.5n.e.n.e.SF6Linear reduction with[11]
Charolais/125 g/dincreasing amount
LimosinCO (28%)βˆ’20.5n.e.n.e.
in vivo250 g/d
CO (42%)βˆ’39↓↓
375 g/d
3Bulls36103 d10/90SO (10%)βˆ’40n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.SF6SO: 40% reduction[14]
Charolais/SB (12%)βˆ’25.3n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.↓↓digestibility n.e.
in vivo
4Lac. cows5012 wk70/30CS (48%)βˆ’23n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.SF6Methane ↓ (βˆ’23%)[18]
in vivodigestibility n.e.
5Lac. cows164 Γ— 28 d45/55SFS (3.3%)βˆ’10↑n.e.n.e.n.e.↓↓n.e.↓↓RCLO : 18 % reduction[20]
in vivoTMRLO (3.3%)βˆ’18n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.n.e.↓↓digestibility ↓
RS (3.3%)βˆ’16n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.↓↓n.e.n.e.n.e.RS : 16% reduction
digestibility n.e.
6Sheep3260 d60/40SO (3%)βˆ’14↓↑n.e.n.e.n.e.↑↓↓↓ * ↓RCMethane ↓ (βˆ’14%)[15]
Huzhoudigestibility n.e.
in vivo
7Sheep123 Γ— 21 d60/40CO (6%)βˆ’26↓n.e.↓↓↓n.e.RCSFS : 27% reduction[17]
S.W.H.RS (6%)βˆ’19↓n.e.↓↓↓↓digestibility ↓
in vivoSFS (6%)βˆ’27↓n.e.↓↓↓↓↓CO : 26% reduction
LO (6%)βˆ’10↓n.e.↓↓↓↓digestibility n.e.
8Bulls1621 d75/25SFO (5%)βˆ’22n.e.↑↓n.e.↓RCMethane ↓ (βˆ’22%)[31]
Holstein400 g/dDigestibility ↓
in vivo
9Lac. Cows36319 d50/50CS (4%)n.e.↑SF6n.e. probably too[32]
HolsteinTMRCS (5.6%)n.e.↑small a dose
in vivoRS (4%)n.e.↑lacks hydrogenation
RS (5.6%)n.e.↑in the rumen
10Lac. Cows1218 d60/40C14 : 0 (5%)βˆ’36n.e.↓RCMethane ↓ (βˆ’36%)[27]
HolsteinTMRDigestibility ↓
in vivo
11Lac. Cows84 wk65/35LO (5.7%)βˆ’64↓↓SF6LO : 64% reduction[30]
HolsteinELO (5.7%)βˆ’38↓↓Digestibility ↓
in vivoCLO (5.7%)βˆ’12n.e.↓
12Sheep821 d60/40CO (7%)βˆ’38n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.RCMethane ↓ (βˆ’38%)[29]
HuzhouDigestibility n.e.
in vivo
13in vitro24 h60/40C12/C14Greatest effect with[28]
1 cow10 : 20βˆ’50n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.raised C12/C14 ratio
15 : 15βˆ’87n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.(βˆ’96%). Reduction in
20 : 10βˆ’96n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.methanogens
14Rusitec410 d60/40C8 : 0 (5%)n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.n.e.↓MCFA : 18% reduction[26]
1 cowC10 : 0 (5%)n.e.n.e.n.e.↓↓n.e.n.e.↓PUFA : 25% reduction
in vitroC12 : 0 (5%)βˆ’18n.e.n.e.↓↓↓↓
C14 : 0 (5%)βˆ’18n.e.n.e.n.e.↓n.e.↓
C16 : 0 (5%)n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.
C18 : 0 (5%)n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.n.e.
C18 : 2 (5%)βˆ’25n.e.n.e.↓↓↓n.e.

CLO = crude linseed; CM = copra meal based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal; CO = coconut oil; CS = cottonseed; DMI = dry matter intake; ELO = extrudedlinseed; LO = linseed oil; MCFA = medium chain fatty acid; n.e. = no effect; NH3 = Ammonia; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid; RC = respiration chamber; RS = rapeseed;SB = soybean; SFS = sunflowerseed; SF6 = sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique; SFO = sunflower oil; SO = soya oil; S.W.H. = Swiss White Hill; TMR = total mixed ration;VFA = short chain fatty acids.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.