Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 678070, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/678070
Case Report

Needle in a Haystack—Parathyroid Gland in a 10-Day Old Infant: A Case Report and Literature Review

1Pediatric Surgery Department, Hamad General Hospital, P.O. Box 3050, Doha, Qatar
2Pediatrics Department, Hamad General Hospital, P.O. Box 3050, Doha, Qatar

Received 26 February 2011; Accepted 7 April 2011

Academic Editors: R. G. Faix, H. Neville, and S. K. Patole

Copyright © 2011 Adel Ismail et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSPHT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of calcium homeostasis. It presents shortly after birth and is characterized by striking hyperparathyroidism, marked hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroid bone disease. It is caused by mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), the ionized calcium sensor for the parathyroid cells, the parafollicular thyroid C cells, and the kidney epithelium, as well as cells in bone and intestine. Without early intervention, which frequently requires surgical removal of the hyperplastic parathyroids, the patients often succumb to complications of hypercalcemia and respiratory failure. Finding the parathyroid gland in small neonates is not an easy task. Here we report on a patient with neonatal hyperparathyroidism who was treated by total parathyroidectomy and discuss the various ways of helping to find the parathyroid glands during surgery at this young age.