Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2011, Article ID 697980, 10 pages
Research Article

Speciation of Chromium in Soil and Sludge in the Surrounding Tannery Region, Ranipet, Tamil Nadu

Trace Elements Speciation Research Laboratory, Environments and Analytical Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, India

Received 22 June 2011; Accepted 26 July 2011

Academic Editors: S. K. Brar and S. M. Waliszewski

Copyright © 2011 Badal Kumar Mandal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The distribution and mobility of chromium in the soils and sludge surrounding a tannery waste dumping area was investigated to evaluate its vertical and lateral movement of operational speciation which was determined in six steps to fractionate the material in the soil and sludge into (i) water soluble, (ii) exchangeable, (iii) carbonate bound, (iv) reducible, (v) oxidizable, and (vi) residual phases. The present study shows that about 63.7% of total chromium is mobilisable, and 36.3% of total chromium is nonbioavailable in soil, whereas about 30.2% of total chromium is mobilisable, and 69.8% of total chromium is non-bioavailable in sludge. In contaminated sites the concentration of chromium was found to be higher in the reducible phase in soils (31.3%) and oxidisable phases in sludge (56.3%) which act as the scavenger of chromium in polluted soils. These results also indicate that iron and manganese rich soil can hold chromium that will be bioavailable to plants and biota. Thus, results of this study can indicate the status of bioavailable of chromium in this area, using sequential extraction technique. So a suitable and proper management of handling tannery sludge in the said area will be urgently needed to the surrounding environment as well as ecosystems.