Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2011, Article ID 863403, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/863403
Research Article

Infertility in WNIN Obese Mutant Rats—Causes?

1National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Jami-Osmania PO, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad 500 007, India
2Micronutrient Research Group, Biophysics Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Hyderabad 500 007, India

Received 14 September 2011; Accepted 1 November 2011

Academic Editors: J. A. Rillema and E. Spinedi

Copyright © 2011 Nemani Harishankar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. V. Giridharan, “Animal models of obesity and their usefulness in molecular approach to obesity,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 108, pp. 225–242, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Giridharan, N. Harishankar, and M. Satyavani, “A new rat model for the study of obesity,” Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 131–137, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. Harishankar, A. Vajreswari, and N. V. Giridharan, “WNIN/GR-Ob—an insulin-resistant obese rat model from inbred WNIN strain,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 320–329, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. S. Edmonds, S. K. Dallie, and B. Withyachumnarnkul, “Reproductive system of the Zucker male zucker rat. Reproductive capacity, artificial insemination and plasma testosterone levels,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 891–897, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Robinson, D. Kiddy, S. V. Gelding et al., “The relationship of insulin insensitivity to menstrual pattern in women with hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 351–355, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. S. C. Yen, “The polycystic ovary syndrome,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 177–207, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. J. McKenna, “Pathogenesis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 318, no. 9, pp. 558–562, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Azziz, “Reproductive endocrinologic alterations in female asymptomatic obesity,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 703–725, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Pasquali and F. Casimirri, “The impact of obesity on hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in premenopausal women,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Mårin, S. Holmäng, L. Jönsson et al., “The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle-aged obese men,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 991–997, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. S. Edmonds and B. Withyachumnarnkul, “Sexual behavior of the obese male Zucker rat,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1139–1141, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. A. Bray, “The Zucker fatty rat: a review,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 148–153, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. A. Bray, S. Saiduddin, D. A. York, and R. S. Swerdloff, “Effect of estradiol on uterine weight, thyroid function, food intake, and pituitary weight of genetically obese (fatty Zucker) and lean rats,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 88–91, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Sala and G. Baldratti, “A long-acting anabolic steroid: 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone-17-cyclopentylpropionate,” Endocrinology, vol. 72, pp. 494–495, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. J. Nicholas, In Laboratory Investigations, Griffian and Farris, 1st edition, 1942.
  16. V. Riley, “Adaptation of orbital bleeding technic to rapid serial blood studies,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 104, pp. 751–754, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Eisenberg and G. S. Gordon, “The Levator ani muscle of the rat as an index of myotrophic activity of steroidal hormones,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 99, pp. 38–41, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  18. C. L. Rassaert, A. Wolff, and E. A. McDougall, “A new technique for extirpation of the levator ani muscle in the rat,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 601–602, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Giridharan, B. Sesikeran, M. S. Bamji, and M. N. Madhyastha, “Dose and time related changes in LDH-X activity, epididymal carnitine levels and fertility, in gossypol-treated male rats,” Contraception, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 89–100, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. M. Zucker and T. F. Zucker, “Fatty, a new mutation in the rat,” Journal of Heredity, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 275–278, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. Harishankar, P. U. Kumar, B. Sesikeran, and N. Giridharan, “Obesity associated pathophysiological & histological changes in WNIN obese mutant rats,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 330–340, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. M. Whitaker, M. A. Shaw, and G. R. Hervey, “Plasma oestradiol-17β and testosterone concentrations as possible causes of the infertility of congenitally obese Zucker rats,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 485–490, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Saiduddin, G. A. Bray, D. A. York, and R. S. Swerdloff, “Reproductive function in the genetically obese “Fatty” rat,” Endocrinology, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1251–1256, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. R. Wright, A. J. Yates, H. M. Sharma, C. Shim, R. L. Tigner, and P. Thibert, “Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Herberg, I. Banks, K. D. Buchanan et al., “A sub colony of BB rats: breeding data, hormonal, and metabolic findings,” in Lessons from Animal Diabetes, E. Shafrir and A. E. Renold, Eds., pp. 348–353, John Libbey, London, UK, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  26. N. Harishankar, E. Seshadri, S. Kalyanasundaram, and N. Giridharan, “Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to frank diabetes: dietary manipulations in WNIN/GR-Ob rats,” Journal of Diabetes Mellitus.
  27. G. A. Bray and D. A. York, “Genetically transmitted obesity in rodents,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 598–646, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. L. Coleman and K. P. Hummel, “The effects of hypothalamics lesions in genetically diabetic mice,” Diabetologia, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 263–267, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. S. Smith, M. E. Freeman, and J. D. Neill, “The control of progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat: prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy,” Endocrinology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 219–226, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. H. Olster and I. D. Auerbach, “Deficits in progesterone-facilitated sexual behaviors and forebrain estrogen and progestin receptors in obese female Zucker rats,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 350–359, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Pettigrew, “Obesity and female reproductive function,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 341–358, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Deb and R. J. Martin, “Effects of exercise and of food restriction on the development of spontaneous obesity in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 543–549, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. S. Swerdloff, R. A. Batt, and G. A. Bray, “Reproductive hormonal function in the genetically obese (ob/ob) mouse,” Endocrinology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1359–1364, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. V. Giridharan, C. N. Lakshmi, M. Satyavani, and N. Harishankar, “Wistar/NIN-Igt, Wistar/NIN-Ob and Wistar/NIN-Ob-Igt. Three mutant animal models for diabetes and obesity from Wistar inbred colony,” Rat Newsletter, vol. 29, pp. 14–15, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. S. Jayaraman, “'Sumo' rats set researchers on hunt for obesity genes,” Nature Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 108, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus