Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 875684, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/875684
Research Article

Downregulation of the Adenosine A2b Receptor by RNA Interference Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Lanzhou General Hospital, Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, 98 XiaoXiHu Road, Lanzhou 730050, China

Received 25 January 2011; Accepted 8 March 2011

Academic Editors: W. Habano and M. O. Hoque

Copyright © 2011 Hong-Jun Xiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Vaupel, F. Kallinowski, and P. Okunieff, “Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review,” Cancer Research, vol. 49, no. 23, pp. 6449–6465, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, “Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia,” Medical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 243–259, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Blay, T. D. White, and D. W. Hoskin, “The extracellular fluid of solid carcinomas contains immunosuppressive concentrations of adenosine,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 13, pp. 2602–2605, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. B. Fredholm, A. P. Ijzerman, K. A. Jacobson, K. N. Klotz, and J. Linden, “International Union of Pharmacology. XXV. Nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 527–552, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Linden, “Molecular approach to adenosine receptors: receptor-mediated mechanisms of tissue protection,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 41, pp. 775–787, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. W. Daly, P. Butts Lamb, and W. Padgett, “Subclasses of adenosine receptors in the central nervous system: interaction with caffeine and related methylxanthines,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 69–80, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. F. Bruns, G. H. Lu, and T. A. Pugsley, “Characterization of the A2 adenosine receptor labeled by [3H]NECA in rat striatal membranes,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 331–346, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Spychala, “Tumor-promoting functions of adenosine,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 87, no. 2-3, pp. 161–173, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. J. Xiang, Z. C. Liu, D. E. S. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. L. Yang, and KE. F. Dou, “Adenosine A receptor is highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Hepatology Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Friedrich, A. Shir, S. Klein, and A. Levitzki, “RNA molecules as anti-cancer agents,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 223–230, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Maxwell Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, “Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 153–156, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Y. Kuang, S. Lekawanvijit, N. Maneekarn et al., “Hepatitis B 1762/1764 mutations, hepatitis C infection, and codon 249 p53 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas from Thailand,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 380–384, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. J. Lee, J. J. Bae, J. S. Lee et al., “Abrogation of the p16-Rb pathway in korean hepatocellular carcinomas,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 47, no. 36, pp. 1663–1668, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Colnot, T. Decaens, M. Niwa-Kawakita et al., “Liver-targeted disruption of Apc in mice activates β-catenin signaling and leads to hepatocellular carcinomas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 49, pp. 17216–17221, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Takenoshita, “Mutation analysis of transforming growth factor β type II receptor, Smad2, and Smad4 in hepatocellular carcinoma,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 127–131, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. Chaubert, R. Gayer, A. Zimmermann et al., “Germ-line mutations of the p16(INK4)(MTS1) gene occur in a subset of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma,” Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1376–1381, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. J. Zhang, W. Jiang, C. J. Chen et al., “Amplification and overexpression of cyclin D1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 1010–1016, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Walday and P. Aas, “Prejunctional stimulation of cholinergic nerves in rat airway smooth muscle by an adenosine analogue,” Pulmonary Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 114–119, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Feoktistov and I. Biaggioni, “Adenosine A(2b) receptors evoke interleukin-8 secretion in human mast cells. An enprofylline-sensitive mechanism with implications for asthma,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1979–1986, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. L. Webb, M. A. Sills, J. P. Chovan, J. L. Balwierczak, and J. E. Francis, “CGS 21680: a potent selective adenosine A receptor agonist,” Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 26–53, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. K. Dubey, D. G. Gillespie, K. Osaka, F. Suzuki, and E. K. Jackson, “Adenosine inhibits growth of rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Possible role of A receptor,” Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 786–793, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Nicholls, V. R. Brownhill, and S. M. O. Hourani, “Characterization of P-purinoceptors on rat isolated duodenum longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 170–174, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Sebastião and J. A. Ribeiro, “Adenosine A receptor-mediated excitatory actions on the nervous system,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 167–189, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. J. Hannon, “RNA interference,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6894, pp. 244–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Fire, S. Xu, M. K. Montgomery, S. A. Kostas, S. E. Driver, and C. C. Mello, “Potent and specific genetic interference by double stranded RNA in Caenorbabditis elegans,” Nature, vol. 391, pp. 806–811, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. M. Elbashir, J. Harborth, W. Lendeckel, A. Yalcin, K. Weber, and T. Tuschl, “Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6836, pp. 494–498, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. P. Paul, P. D. Good, I. Winer, and D. R. Engelke, “Effective expression of small interfering RNA in human cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 505–508, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. R. Brummelkamp, R. Bernards, and R. Agami, “A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5567, pp. 550–553, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Ashrafi, F. Y. Chang, J. L. Watts et al., “Genome-wide RNAi analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans fat regulatory genes,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6920, pp. 268–272, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Tuschl, “Functional genomics: RNA sets the standard,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6920, pp. 220–221, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Gitlin and R. Andino, “Nucleic acid-based immune system: the antiviral potential of mammalian RNA silencing,” Journal of Virology, vol. 77, no. 13, pp. 7159–7165, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. J. Shuey, D. E. McCallus, and T. Giordano, “RNAi: gene-silencing in therapeutic intervention,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 7, no. 20, pp. 1040–1046, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. M. Jacque, K. Triques, and M. Stevenson, “Modulation of HIV-1 replication by RNA interference,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6896, pp. 435–438, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. B. Kapadia, A. Brideau-Andersen, and F. V. Chisari, “Interference of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by short interfering RNAs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 2014–2018, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. J. Caplen, Z. Zheng, B. Falgout, and R. A. Morgan, “Inhibition of viral gene expression and replication in mosquito cells by dsRNA-triggered RNA interference,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. A. Escobar, E. L. Civerolo, K. R. Summerfelt, and A. M. Dandekar, “RNAi-mediated oncogene silencing confers resistance to crown gall tumorigenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 23, pp. 13437–13442, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus