Table of Contents
ISRN Renewable Energy
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 934575, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/934575
Research Article

Effect of Annealing Atmosphere on the Properties of Electrochemically Deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Thin Films

1Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, India
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea
3Solar Cell Laboratory, LG Components R & D Center, 1271 Sa-Dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si 426-791, Republic of Korea
4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea

Received 29 June 2011; Accepted 20 July 2011

Academic Editors: A. Alemu and B. Mwinyiwiwa

Copyright © 2011 B. S. Pawar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, and G. Kresse, “Cu2 ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Physical Review B, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 115126–115134, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. B. Mitzi, M. Yuan, W. Liu et al., “A high-efficiency solution-deposited thin-film photovoltaic device,” Advanced Materials, vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 3657–3662, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Kaelin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Low cost processing of CIGS thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 749–756, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter et al., “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell beyond 20%,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. K. Jimbo, R. Kimura, T. Kamimura et al., “Cu2ZnSnS4-type thin film solar cells using abundant materials,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 15, pp. 5997–5999, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Katagiri, “Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 480-481, pp. 426–432, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Katagiri, K. Saitoh, T. Washio, H. Shinohara, T. Kurumadani, and S. Miyajima, “Development of thin film solar cell based on Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 141–148, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. S. Seol, S. Y. Lee, J. C. Lee, H. D. Nam, and K.-H. Kim, “Electrical and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering process,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 75, no. 1-2, pp. 155–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Matsushita, T. Maeda, A. Katsui, and T. Takizawa, “Thermal analysis and synthesis from the melts of Cu-based quaternary compounds Cu-III-IV-VI4 and Cu2-II-IV-VI4 (II = Zn, Cd; III = Ga, In; IV = Ge, Sn; VI = Se),” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 416–422, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. J. Scragg, P. J. Dale, and L. M. Peter, “Towrds sustainable materials for solar energy conversion: preparation and photoelectrochemical characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 10, pp. 639–642, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  11. K. Ito and T. Nakazawa, “Electrical and optical properties of stannite-type quaternary semiconductor thin films,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2094–2097, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Katagiri, K. Jimbo, S. Yamada et al., “Enhanced conversion efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4-based thin film solar cells by using preferential etching technique,” Applied Physics Express, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 041201–041202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Tanaka, T. Nagatomo, D. Kawasaki et al., “Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by hybrid sputtering,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1978–1981, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Oishi, G. Saito, K. Ebina et al., “Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films on Si (100) substrates by multisource evaporation,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 4, pp. 1449–1452, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Moriya, K. Tanaka, and H. Uchiki, “Characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by photo-chemical deposition,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 44, no. 1 B, pp. 715–717, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. M. Pawar, B. S. Pawar, A. V. Moholkar et al., “Single step electrosynthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films for solar cell application,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 4057–4061, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Araki, Y. Kubo, K. Jimbo et al., “Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Physica Status Solidi (C), vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1266–1268, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber et al., “Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: novel low-cost perspective,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 7, pp. 2511–2514, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. J. Scragg, P. J. Dale, L. M. Peter, G. Zoppi, and I. Forbes, “New routes to sustainable photovoltaics: evaluation of Cu2ZnSnS4 as an alternative absorber material,” Physica Status Solidi (B), vol. 245, no. 9, pp. 1772–1778, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. B. Kishore Kumar, G. Suresh Babu, P. Uday Bhaskar, and V. Sundara Raja, “Preparation and characterization of spray-deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 1230–1237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Moriya, K. Tanaka, and H. Uchiki, “Fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cell prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 46, no. 9 A, pp. 5780–5781, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Moriya, K. Tanaka, and H. Uchiki, “Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films annealed in H2S atmosphere for solar cell absorber prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 602–604, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. M. Pawar, A. V. Moholkar, I. K. Kim et al., “Effect of laser incident energy on the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 565–569, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Katagiri, N. Sasaguchi, S. Hando, S. Hoshino, J. Ohashi, and T. Yokota, “Preparation and evaluation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurization of E-B evaporated precursors,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 49, no. 1–4, pp. 407–414, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Araki, Y. Kubo, A. Mikaduki et al., “Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurizing electroplated precursors,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 6-7, pp. 996–999, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. J. Scragg, D. M. Berg, and P. J. Dale, “A 3.2% efficient Kesterite device from electrodeposited stacked elemental layers,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 646, no. 1-2, pp. 52–59, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Tanaka, N. Moritake, and H. Uchiki, “Preparation of Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurizing sol-gel deposited precursors,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91, no. 13, pp. 1199–1201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, J. C. Keane, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 480-481, pp. 499–502, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. J. Dale, K. Hoenes, J. Scragg, and S. Siebentritt, “A review of the challenges facing kesterite based thin film solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '09), pp. 002080–002085, 2009.
  30. B. S. Pawar, S. M. Pawar, S. W. Shin et al., “Effect of complexing agent on the properties of electrochemically deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 5, pp. 1786–1791, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Ramanathan, M. A. Contreras, C. L. Perkins et al., “Properties of 19.2% efficiency ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 thin-film solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 225–230, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Cui, S. Zuo, J. Jiang, S. Yuan, and J. Chu, “Synthesis and characterization of co-electroplated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films as potential photovoltaic material,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2136–2140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar