The pathology of renal dysfunction in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
|HRS||HRS is classified into two types: type 1 is characterized by a doubling of the serum creatinine level to more than 2.5 mg/dL in less than 2 weeks; type 2 is characterized by a stable or less rapidly progressive course than in type 1.|
|Hypovolemia-induced renal failure||Renal flow losses because of excessive diuretic therapy or gastrointestinal losses as a result of diarrhea from excessive lactulose administration or gastrointestinal infection. Renal failure occurs soon after the onset of hypovolemia.|
|Parenchymal renal disease||Acute or chronic parenchymal renal disease should be suspected as a cause of renal failure when proteinuria, hematuria, or both are present and ideally should be confirmed by renal biopsy|
|Drug-induced renal failure||Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics suggest drug-induced renal failure.|