International Scholarly Research Notices / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Relationship between Renal Dysfunction and Abnormalities of the Immune System in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

Table 1

The pathology of renal dysfunction in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.


HRSHRS is classified into two types: type 1 is characterized by a doubling of the serum creatinine level to more than 2.5 mg/dL in less than 2 weeks; type 2 is characterized by a stable or less rapidly progressive course than in type 1.

Hypovolemia-induced renal failureRenal flow losses because of excessive diuretic therapy or gastrointestinal losses as a result of diarrhea from excessive lactulose administration or gastrointestinal infection. Renal failure occurs soon after the onset of hypovolemia.

Parenchymal renal diseaseAcute or chronic parenchymal renal disease should be suspected as a cause of renal failure when proteinuria, hematuria, or both are present and ideally should be confirmed by renal biopsy

Drug-induced renal failureNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics suggest drug-induced renal failure.