(a) Adult mRNA-iPS cells: Spontaneous differentiation
(b) Directed differentiation
Figure 4: In vitro differentiation of iPS cells. (a) Spontaneous differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) was followed for several days and EBs stained positive for various differentiation markers. (b) mRNA-iPS cells derived from human fibroblasts (female, 21 yrs) were differentiated towards hepatocytes, neurons, and chondrocytes (see Experimental Procedures). Cells expressed lineage-typical markers, (hepatocytes: AFP and cytokeratin 18; neurons: GFAP and tubulin III; chondrocytes: collagen II and aggrecan) and showed morphological changes. All cells were also stained with DAPI, and images were merged with lineage markers.