Figure 4: Tyrosine kinase receptors pathway. Tyrosine kinase receptors include the following dimmers receptors: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as HER2 or ErbB2); HER, human epidermal growth factor receptor; VEGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; FGFR, fibroblast growth factor receptor; PDGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor. IGFR, insulin growth factor receptor, is also a tyrosine kinase receptor. When a growth factor binds to the receptor, a cascade of phosphorylations is initiated, which finishes with activation of transcription genes (adapted from [73]).