Table of Contents
ISRN Agronomy
Volume 2012, Article ID 153412, 7 pages
Research Article

Constraints to On-Farm Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed Production in Western Kenya: Plant Growth and Yield

1Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Genebank of Kenya, P.O. Box 30148-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
2School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Karatina University College, P.O. Box 1957-10101, Karatina, Kenya
3Department of Seed, Crop and Horticultural Sciences, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

Received 12 April 2012; Accepted 18 June 2012

Academic Editors: J. Hatfield, G. C. Heathman, and M. A. Taboada

Copyright © 2012 P. W. Wambugu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications), Maize, 2001,
  2. M. Kamidi, D. Cheruiyot, P. Osore, and G. Barasa, “Verification of the effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the yield of maize,” in A Key to Sustainable Land Use. Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Soil Science Society of East Africa, 6–10 September 1999, J. S. Tenywa, J. Y. K. Zake, P. Ebanyat, O. Semalulu, and S. T. Nkalubo, Eds., 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. P. N. Mwangi and A. Ely, “Assessing risks and benefits: Bt maize in Kenya,” Biotechnology and Development Monitor, no. 48, pp. 6–9, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. C. Delouche, “Seed quality guidelines for the small farmer,” in Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT '82), Improved seed for the small farmer, pp. 26–29, Cali, Colombia, 1982.
  5. G. de Bruijn, C. Almekinders, and L. Keune, “Farmers' knowledge and practices. In Smallholder seed production, with special reference to a case study in Central America,” in Seed Production by Small Holder Farmers. Proceedings of the ILCA/ICARDA Research Planning Workshop held in ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13–15 June 1994, J. Hanson, Ed., p. 58, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Wright, T. Donaldson, E. Cromwell, and J. New, “The retention and care of seeds by small-scale farmers,” NRI Report R2103, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  7. N. P. Louwaars, “Integrated seed supply: a flexible approach,” in Seed Production by Small Holder Farmers. Proceedings of the ILCA/ICARDA Research Planning Workshop held in ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13–15 June 1994, J. Hanson, Ed., p. 58, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. L. Dornbos Jr., “Production environment and seed quality,” in Basic Mechanisms and Agricultural Implications, A. S. Basra, Ed., pp. 119–145, Food Products Press, London, UK, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. A. Powell, S. Matthews, and M. D. A. Oliveira, “Seed quality in grain legumes,” Advances in Applied Biology, vol. 10, pp. 217–285, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  10. P. W. Wambugu, On-farm Seed Production, Storage and Preservation of Selected Local Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm in Western Kenya: The Case of Siaya and Busia Districts [Master of Philosophy Thesis], Moi University, 2006.
  11. W. Songa, W. K. Ronno, and D. L. Danial, “Production constraints of beans in the semi arid Eastern Kenya with special reference to charcoal rot,” in Proceedings of the Regional Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa held at Njoro, Kenya, pp. 251–255, Wageningen Agricultural University, October 1994.
  12. D. B. Egli, Seed Biology and the Yield of Grain Crops, CABI, Wallingford, UK, 1998.
  13. O. M. Odongo, “Witchweed Striga hermonthica (del.) management strategies in maize farming system in Western Kenya,” Report for 1994 and Current Striga Research by RRC-Kakamega. East and Central African Striga Working Group in Mombasa (Kenya) and Tanga (Tanzania), 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. GOK, Busia District Development Plan. 1997–2001, Ministry of Home Affairs and National Planning, 1997.
  15. GOK, Siaya District Development Plan. 1997–2001, Ministry of Home Affairs and National Planning, 1997.
  16. A. Cornwall, I. Guijt, and A. Welbourn, “Acknowledging process: challenges for agricultural research and extension methodology,” in International Institute for Environmental Development, I. Scoones and J. Thompson, Eds., pp. 98–117, Intermediate Technology, London, UK, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  17. K. S. Kwon, “Genetics of maize tolerance of Striga hermonthica,” Crop Science, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 900–907, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. A. Gomez and A. Gomez, Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Phillipines, 2nd edition, 1987.
  19. CIMMYT, From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual, Completely Revised edition, 1998.
  20. L. F. Muhammed, H. C. Scott, and M. H. C. G. Steeghs, Seed availability, distribution and use in Machakos district, short rains 1983-short rains 1984, MALD: DAO and DFRS, Machakos, Kenya, 1985.
  21. C. J. M. Almekinders, N. P. Louwaars, and G. H. de Bruijn, “Local seed systems and their importance for an improved seed supply in developing countries,” Euphytica, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 207–216, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. L. Clawson, “Harvest security and intraspecific diversity in traditional tropical agriculture,” Economic Botany, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 56–67, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Wierema, C. Almekinders, L. Keune, and R. Vermeer, La produccion Campessina en Centroamerica: Los Sistemas Locales De Semilla, IVO, Tilburg, The Netherlands, 1993.
  24. A. Haugerud and M. P. Collinson, “Plants, genes and people: improving the relevance of plant breeding in Africa,” Experimental Agriculture, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 341–362, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. Ellis, G. E. Galvez, and J. B. Sinclair, “Effects of foliar applications of systemic fungicides and late harvest on seed quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris),” Plant Disease Reporter, vol. 60, pp. 1073–1076, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. S. Beebe and M. P. Corrales, “Breeding for diseases,” in Common Beans Research for Crop Improvement, A. van Schoonhoven and O. Voyest, Eds., pp. 561–610, CIAT and CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. C. Ulger, H. Ibrikci, B. Cakir, and N. Guzel, “Influence of nitrogen rates and row spacing on corn yield, protein content, and other plant parameters,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1697–1709, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. T. Gungula, Growth and Nitrogen use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria [Ph.D. thesis], University of Ibadan, 1999.
  29. H. C. Bittenbender, N. V. Hue, F. Kent, and B. Hillary, “Sustainability of organic fertilization of macadamia with macadamia husk-manure compost,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 409–419, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. M. Odongo and G. Abayo, “Performance of maize varieties under striga and striga free environments in Western Kenya,” in Agricultural Research and Development for Sustainable Resource Management and Increased Production. Proceedings of the 6th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference, 9–13 November 1998, Agronam Services Limited, Ed., 1998. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Oswald, H. Frost, J. Ransom, J. K. Kroschel, K. D. Shepherd, and J. Sauerborn, “Studies on the potential for improved fallow using trees and shrubs to reduce striga infestations in Kenya,” in Proceedings of the 6th Parasitic Weed Symposium, Cordoba, Spain, 1996.
  32. M. Timmerman and B. Brolley, “Effect of soil nitrogen on soybean yield and quality,” 2002,
  33. P. Y. K. Sallah and D. Afribeh, “Effects of Striga hermonthica infestation on improved maize cultivars in Ghana,” Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 31, article 2, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. Y. Akintunde, G. O. Obigbesan, and S. K. Kim, “Nitrogen use efficiency and grain yields as influenced by nitrogen fertilization and hybrid maize varieties in selected agro-ecological zones of Nigeria,” in Maize Improvement, Production and Utilization in Nigeria, M. A. B. Fakorede, Ed., pp. 119–124, Adasanuri Press, IIe-Ife, Nigeria, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Kanzikwera, D. Osiru, J. Tenywa, E. Adipala, and A. Bhagsari, “Effect of mother plant-applied nitrogen and potassium on seed weight and seedling emergence of true potato seed,” African Crop Science Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 375–385, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. W. M. Thagana and P. Ndegwa, “The effect of seed size on germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the laboratory,” in Focus on Agricultural Research for Sustainable Development in a changing Economic Environment. Proceedings of the 5th KARI Scientific Conference 14–16 Oct. 1996, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. A. Vaughan, R. L. Bernard, and J. B. Sinclair, “Soybean seed quality in relation to days between development stages,” Agronomy Journal, vol. 81, pp. 215–219, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  38. D. A. Perry, “Seed vigour and seedling establishment,” Advances in Research and Technology of Seeds, vol. 5, pp. 25–40, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. A. Ogunremi, “Effect of Nitrogen fertilization and harvesting time on sunflower yield and hollow seededness,” East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 236–241, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. C. Shiluli, C. N. Macharia, and A. W. Kamau, “Economic analysis of maize yield response to nitrogen and phosphorus in the sub-humid zones of Western Kenya,” African Crop Science Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 181–187, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. R. Okalebo, J. R. Simpson, E. G. Okwach, M. E. Probert, and R. L. McCrown, “Conservation of soil fertility under intensive maize cropping in semi arid eastern Kenya,” in Proceedings of the African Crop Science Conference, vol. 3, pp. 429–438, 1997.
  42. R. M. Hassan, K. Njoroge, M. Njore, R. Otsyulla, and A. Laboso, “Adoption patterns and performance of improved maize in Kenya,” in Maize Technology Development and Transfer. A GIS Application for Research Planning in Kenya-, pp. 107–136, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. R. Buresh, P. C. Smithson, D. T. Hellums et al., “Building soil phosphorus capital in Africa,” in Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa, R. J. Buresh et al., Ed., pp. 111–149, SSSA Special Publication no. 51, Madison, Wis, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  44. H. J. Mutsaers, G. K. Weber, P. Walker, and N. M. Fisher, “A field guide to on-farm experimentation,” IITA/CTA/ISNAR, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  45. ASARECA, “Impact of maize and wheat research in Eastern Africa: results of recent studies,” AgriForum Volume 10, 2000. View at Google Scholar