Table of Contents
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2012, Article ID 230742, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/230742
Review Article

Interleukin 10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Pregnancy: Aspects of Interest in Clinical Obstetrics

Post-Graduate Program in Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mastology, Botucatu Medical School, (UNESP) São Paulo State University, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Received 17 November 2011; Accepted 11 December 2011

Academic Editor: K. D. Beaman

Copyright ยฉ 2012 Jusciele Brogin Moreli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to review the literature regarding the action of the cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- ๐›ผ ) in pregnancy and to emphasize the factors that are of interest to clinical obstetrics. The literature highlights several actions of IL-10 and TNF- ๐›ผ during pregnancy. The actions of these cytokines seem to be antagonistic and dependent on the balance between them, which is orchestrated by the specific immunosuppressive action of IL-10. TNF- ๐›ผ has a characteristic inflammatory action, and it is an additional diabetogenic factor in pregnancy. The loss of the control of the production of these cytokines, with increase of TNF- ๐›ผ , is related to the risk for developing obstetric complications, particularly recurrent fetal loss, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive syndromes, and fetal growth restriction. However, study results are controversial and are not clearly defined. These issues are attributed to the heterogeneity of the studies, particularly regarding their sample sizes and sources, the evaluation methods, and the multiplicity of factors and conditions that influence cytokine production. These questions are fundamental and should be addressed in future investigations to obtain more consistent results that can be applied to obstetric practice.