Table 1: Assignments and frequency behavior for the Raman modes from sp2 carbon materials [2].

Name(1) (cm−1)(2)Res.(3) (4)Notes(5)

iTA288DRd1129Intra-V ( ~ near )
LA453DRd1216Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
RBM(6)227/ SR0SWNT vibration of radius
IFM (oTO − LA)750DR2−220Intra-V + Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
oTO860DRd10Intra-V ( ~ 0 near Γ), IR active
IFM+ (oTO + LA)960DR2180Intra-V + Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
D (iTO)1350DRd153Inter-V ( ~ near K)
G (iTO·LO)(7)1585SR0 , that is, at
D′ (LO)1620DRd110Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
M (2oTO)1732DR2−26Intra-V + Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
M+ (2oTO)1755DR20Intra-V + Intra-V ( ~ 0 near Γ)
iTOLA (iTO + LA)1950DR2230Intra-V + Intra-V ( ~ near Γ)
G* (LA + iTO)2450DR2−10Inter-V + Inter-V ( ~ near K)(8)
G′ (2iTO)(9)2700DR2100Inter-V + Inter-V ( ~ near K)
G + D2935DRd250Intra-V + Inter-V(10)
D′ + D2970DRd260Intra-V + Inter-V(10)
2G3170DR20Overtone of G mode
2D′3240DR220Overtone of D′ mode

(1)Usually the respective graphene phonon branch labels the Raman peaks. When other names are given in the literature, the respective phonon branch appears between parentheses.
(2)The frequencies quoted in the table are observed at  eV.
(3)The notation for resonances is as follows: SR: single resonance, 1-phonon Raman allowed; DR2: double resonance, 2-phonon Raman allowed; DRd1: double resonance Raman activated by disorder, 1 phonon; DRd2: double resonance Raman activated by disorder, 2 phonons.
(4)The change of phonon frequency in cm−1 obtained by changing the laser excitation energy by 1 eV.
(5)Intra-V: intravalley scattering; Inter-V: intervalley scattering.
(6)The radial breathing mode (RBM) only occurs for carbon nanotubes.
(7)The iTO and LO phonons are degenerated at the Γ point for graphene. For nanoribbons and SWNTs, the G band splits into several peaks due to symmetry, and differs for metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. The G band frequency depends strongly on doping and strain.
(8)There is another assignment of 2iTO ( ~ 0 near K) with .
(9)Some groups use the nomenclature “2D band” for the G′ band.
(10)This combination mode consists of intra-valley + inter-valley scattering, and thus, the elastic scattering process also exists for some combination modes.