Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2012, Article ID 247072, 10 pages
Research Article

Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

1Toxicology, International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology (IIBAT), Padappai, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu 601301, India
2Bio-organic Chemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adayar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 020, India

Received 26 August 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012

Academic Editors: F. Fernández-Piñas and G. J. McBean

Copyright © 2012 G. Satyavani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosphate, pyrethroid-based insecticides; azole-based fungicides; acetamide, propionate, acetic acid-based herbicides; fungicides mixtures containing two actives—azole and dithiocarbamate. The toxicity endpoints of yield ( C50: 0–72 h) and growth rate ( C50: 0–72 h) of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for each pesticide formulation (both expired and unexpired pesticides) were determined statistically using TOXSTAT 3.5 version software. The results pointed out that some expired pesticide formulations exhibited higher toxicity to tested algal species, as compared to the corresponding unexpired pesticides. These data thus stress the need for greater care to dispose expired pesticides to water bodies, to avoid the effects on aquatic ecospecies tested.