Figure 2: Simplified scheme of the ascending modulatory systems in the brain. The picture recapitulates the main ascending modulatory systems, with no pretension of neuroanatomical precision. Black (ACh): pontomesencephalic and basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei; light blue (GABA): GABAergic nuclei in the forebrain; brown: several noradrenergic (the main being locus coeruleus), dopaminergic, and serotonergic nuclei which cooperate in regulating the brain active states (see the main text); gray: hypothalamic histaminergic cells, which also regulate cortical activation. For clarity no connection pattern is shown for histaminergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic nuclei. NE: norepinephrine.