Table 1: Operational definitions of attributes and levels.

AttributeDefinitionLevel 1Level 2Level 3

TimeThe time (in minutes) it takes for the student to complete their weekly journaling requirement.15 minutes30 minutes45 minutes
ResultThe desired impact on the self-perceived behavior of the studentNo impact on student behaviorRecognize positive and negative behaviorsTransforms student behavior
FeedbackThe amount of feedback that the instructor provides to the studentChecks for completeness onlyProvides one-time comprehensive feedbackProvides “give and take” with multiple feedback opportunities.
StructureThe journaling format that the students must followStructured questionsCombination of structure and free-flowFree-flow open forum
ConfidentialityThe presence or lack of confidentiality of the author and/or content of reflective journalingName and content are completely confidentialContent can be shared but name remains confidentialNo confidentiality of either name or content