Table of Contents
ISRN Corrosion
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 323676, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/323676
Research Article

Porous Layer Characterization of Anodized and Black-Anodized Aluminium by Electrochemical Studies

Thermal Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, P.O. Box No. 1795, Old Airport Road, Vimanapura Post Office, Bangalore 560017, India

Received 17 September 2012; Accepted 1 November 2012

Academic Editors: H. Altun, G. Marginean, H. Miao, and C. Valentini

Copyright © 2012 M. Franco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Uma Rani, A. K. Sharma, S. M. Mayanna, H. Bhojraj, and D. R. Bhandari, “Black permanganate conversion coatings on aluminium alloys for thermal control of spacecraft,” Surface Engineering, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 198–203, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. K. Sharma, H. Bhojraj, V. K. Kaila, and H. Narayanamurthy, “Anodizing and inorganic black coloring of aluminum alloys for space applications,” Metal Finishing, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 14–20, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Umarani, Y. Subba Rao, and A. K. Sharma, “Studies on black anodic coatings for spacecraft thermal control applications,” Galvanotechnik, vol. 102, p. 2182, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Uma Rani and A. K. Sharma, “Studies on black molybdate conversion coatings on aluminum alloys,” Galvanotechnik, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 1736–1746, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. K. Sharma, H. Bhojaraj, H. Narayanamurthy, and J. Md. Mohideen, “Integral black anodizing on aluminium alloys,” Journal of Spacecraft Technology, vol. 2, pp. 35–43, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  6. T. P. Hoar and G. C. Wood, “The sealing of porous anodic oxide films on aluminium,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 333–353, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. C. Spooner and W. J. Forsyth, “X-ray emission spectroscopic study of the sealing of sulphuric acid anodic films on aluminum,” Plating, vol. 55, pp. 336–340, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. P. O'Sullivan, J. A. Hockey, and G. C. Wood, “Infra-red spectroscopic study of anodic alumina films,” Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol. 65, pp. 535–541, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. C. Wood and J. P. O'Sullivan, “Electron-optical examination of sealed anodic alumina films. Surface and interior effects,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 1351–1357, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Xu, G. E. Thompson, and G. C. Wood, “Direct observation of the cell material comprising porous anodic films formed on aluminium,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1623–1625, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. E. Thompson, R. C. Furneaux, and G. C. Wood, “The morphology of sealed anodic films formed on aluminum in phosphoric acid,” Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 53, pp. 97–102, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  12. R. C. Furneaux and G. C. Wood, “Assessment of acid immersion tests for the sealing of anodized aluminium,” Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 14–24, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Wefers, “Mechanism of sealing of anodic oxide coatings on aluminium, Part I+II,” Aluminium, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 553–561, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Wefers, “Mechanism of sealing of anodic oxide coatings on aluminium,” Aluminium, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 622–625, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Hitzig, K. Jüttner, W. J. Lorenz, and W. Paatsch, “AC-impedance measurements on porous aluminium oxide films,” Corrosion Science, vol. 24, no. 11-12, pp. 945–952, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Hitzig, K. Juttner, and W. J. Lorenz, “Ac-impedance measurements on corroded porous aluminum oxide films,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 887–892, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Shih and F. Mansfeld, “A fitting procedure for impedance data of systems with very low corrosion rates,” Corrosion Science, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1235–1240, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Mansfeld and M. W. Kendig, “Evaluation of anodized aluminum surfaces with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 828–833, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. J. Suay, E. Giménez, T. Rodríguez, K. Habbib, and J. J. Saura, “Characterization of anodized and sealed aluminium by EIS,” Corrosion Science, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 611–624, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J.-P. Dasquet, D. Caillard, E. Conforto, J.-P. Bonino, and R. Bes, “Investigation of the anodic oxide layer on 1050 and 2024T3 aluminum alloys by electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 371, no. 1, pp. 183–190, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Lopez, J. A. Gonzalez, E. Otero, E. Escudero, and M. Morcillo, “Atmospheric corrosion of bare and anodised aluminium in a wide range of environmental conditions. Part II: electrochemical responses,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 153, no. 2-3, pp. 235–244, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. J. A. Gonzalez, V. Lopez, A. Bautista, and E. Otero, “Characterization of porous aluminium oxide films from a.c. impedance measurements,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 229–238, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. J. Bartolome, J. F. del Rio, E. Escudero et al., “Behaviour of different bare and anodised aluminium alloys in the atmosphere,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 202, no. 12, pp. 2783–2793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. Huang, H. Shih, H. Huang et al., “Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminum 6061 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS),” Corrosion Science, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3569–3575, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Huang, H. Shih, H. Huang et al., “Evaluation of the properties of anodized aluminum 6061 subjected to thermal cycling treatment using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS),” Corrosion Science, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2493–2501, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. F. Snogan, C. Blanc, G. Mankowski, and N. Pébère, “Characterisation of sealed anodic films on 7050 T74 and 2214 T6 aluminium alloys,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 94–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Moutarlier, M. P. Gigandet, B. Normand, and J. Pagetti, “EIS characterisation of anodic films formed on 2024 aluminium alloy, in sulphuric acid containing molybdate or permanganate species,” Corrosion Science, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 937–951, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Shivakumar, V. Shankar Rao, V. S. Raja, A. K. Sharma, and S. M. Mayanna, “Corrosion behaviour of solar reflector coatings on AA 2024T3—an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study,” Corrosion Science, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 387–393, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. F. Mansfeld and C. H. Tsai, “Determination of coating deterioration with EIS. I. Basic relationships,” Corrosion, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 958–963, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Mansfeld, M. W. Kendig, and S. Tsai, “Evaluation of corrosion behavior of coated metals with ac impedance measurements,” Corrosion, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 478–485, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. Lopez, E. Otero, E. Escudero, and J. A. Gonzalez, “Nanostructural changes in porous anodic films on aluminum during aging,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. V. Lopez, M. J. Bartalome, E. Escudero, E. Otero, and J. A. Gonzalez, “Comparison by SEM, TEM, and EIS of hydrothermally sealed and cold sealed aluminum anodic oxides,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. B75–B82, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. A. Gonzalez and V. Lopez, “Postsealing changes in porous aluminum oxide films obtained in sulfuric acid solutions,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 984–990, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Bonnel, C. Le Pen, and N. Pebere, “E.I.S. Characterization of protective coatings on aluminium alloys,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 44, no. 24, pp. 4259–4267, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. E. Otero, V. Lopez, and J. A. Gonzalez, “Aging of cold-sealed aluminum-oxide films at room-temperature and at 50-degrees-C,” Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 50–54, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. A. Gonzalez, E. Otero, A. Bautista, and V. Lopez, “Effect of triethanolamine addition on sealing time,” Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 59–63, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  37. F. Mansfeld, G. Zhang, and C. Chen, “Evaluation of sealing methods for anodized aluminum alloys with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS),” Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 84, p. 72, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  38. Y. Zuo, P.-H. Zhao, and J.-M. Zhao, “The influences of sealing methods on corrosion behavior of anodized aluminum alloys in NaCl solutions,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 166, no. 2-3, pp. 237–242, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. X.-H. Zhao, Y. Zuo, J.-M. Zhao, J.-P. Xiong, and Y.-M. Tang, “A study on the self-sealing process of anodic films on aluminum by EIS,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 24, pp. 6846–6853, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Tsangaraki-Kaplanoglou, S. Theohari, Th. Dimogerontakis et al., “An investigation of electrolytic coloring process of anodized aluminum coatings,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 6, pp. 2749–2759, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. F. Shaffei, N. N. El-Ebiary, M. M. Badran, and G. G. Murad, “Electrolytic colouring of anodized aluminium: a kinetic study,” Metal Finising, vol. 88, pp. 29–31, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  42. S. Feliu Jr., J. A. Gonzalez, V. Lopez, M. J. Bartalomem, E. Escudero, and E. Otero, “Characterisation of porous and barrier layers of anodic oxides on different aluminium alloys,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1027–1037, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar