Table of Contents
ISRN Pulmonology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 326572, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/326572
Research Article

The Pattern of Presentation and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in HIV-Seropositive Patients Seen at Benin City, Nigeria

1Department of Family Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Edo State, Nigeria
2Department of Surgery, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Edo state, Nigeria
3Department of Family Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria

Received 19 September 2011; Accepted 13 November 2011

Academic Editor: A. Yokoyama

Copyright © 2012 Christopher C. Affusim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The emergence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), led to the rise in the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. However, the trend is being reversed recently due to the widespread use of effective Anti-Retrovirals. Immunosuppression induced by HIV infection modified the clinical presentation of TB, resulting in atypical signs and symptoms, and a more frequent extrapulmonary presentation. This study was undertaken to determine the pattern of presentation and prevalence of TB in HIV seropositive patients seen in Benin City, Nigeria, from January to April, 2007. Method. The study was done using 330 HIV positive patients (123 males and 207 females). A designed questionnaire was used as a diagnostic instrument. Results. The prevalence of TB HIV was found to be 33.9%. It was found to be commoner in females, commonest in the age group 30–39 years. Pulmonary TB was the commonest type of TB found (78.6%). This was followed by TB adenitis (12.5%). The incidence of extrapulmonary TB was 21.4%. There was a high incidence of atypical chest X-ray features and high frequency of negative sputum smears. Conclusions. The overall prevalence rate of TB in HIV (33.9%), and the extrapulmonary presentation of TB are high. Some investigation results were found to be atypical in those with both infections. Physicians should be aware of this pattern of presentation and the atypical findings on investigation for early diagnosis and treatment.