Table of Contents
ISRN Public Health
Volume 2012, Article ID 329721, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/329721
Research Article

The Czech Republic SimSmoke: The Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Attributable Deaths in the Czech Republic

1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
2Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, MD 20705, USA
3International Tobacco Control Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
4Tobacco Dependence Treatment Centre, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Received 4 January 2012; Accepted 24 January 2012

Academic Editors: W. Aekplakorn, J. U. Béria, and S. Siziya

Copyright © 2012 David T. Levy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Ezzati and A. D. Lopez, “Estimates of global mortality attributable to smoking in 2000,” Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9387, pp. 847–852, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. US DHHS, Healthy People 2010, Centers for Disease Control, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2000.
  3. D. T. Levy, J. Gitchell, and F. Chaloupka, “The effects of tobacco control policies on smoking rates: a tobacco control scorecard,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 338–353, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. WHO, Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, The MPOWER Package, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
  5. World Health Organization, WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic: The MPOWER Package, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
  6. Novinky.CZ, Č., 2010, http://www.novinky.cz/.
  7. L. Joossens and M. Raw, “The tobacco control scale 2010,” in Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Tobacco or Health, Association of European Cancer Leagues, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2011.
  8. J. B. Homer and G. B. Hirsch, “System dynamics modeling for public health: Background and opportunities,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 452–458, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. T. Levy, J. E. Bauer, and H. R. Lee, “Simulation modeling and tobacco control: Creating more robust public health policies,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 494–498, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. T. Levy, F. Chaloupka, J. Gitchell, D. Mendez, and K. E. Warner, “The use of simulation models for the surveillance, justification and understanding of tobacco control policies,” Health Care Management Science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. T. Levy, S. Benjakul, H. Ross, and B. Ritthiphakdee, “The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model,” Tobacco Control, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. T. Levy, S. I. Cho, Y. M. Kim, S. Park, M. K. Suh, and S. Kam, “SimSmoke model evaluation of the effect of tobacco control policies in Korea: the unknown success story,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1267–1273, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. T. Levy, C. Tworek, E. J. Hahn, and R. E. Davis, “The Kentucky SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model: Reaching Healthy People 2010 goals through policy change,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 503–507, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. T. Levy, H. Ross, L. Powell, J. E. Bauer, and H. R. Lee, “The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence and deaths caused by smoking in Arizona: results from the Arizona tobacco policy simulation model,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. T. Levy, A. Hyland, C. Higbee, L. Remer, and C. Compton, “The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California. Results from the California Tobacco Policy Simulation Model,” Health Policy, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 153–166, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. CIA, World Fact Book, 2011.
  17. R. West, M. E. DiMarino, J. Gitchell, and A. McNeill, “Impact of UK policy initiatives on use of medicines to aid smoking cessation,” Tobacco Control, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 166–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Kaper, E. J. Wagena, M. C. Willemsen, and C. P. Van Schayck, “A randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of reimbursing the costs of smoking cessation therapy on sustained abstinence,” Addiction, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 1656–1661, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. US DHHS, “The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: a report of the Surgeon General,” Atlanta, Ga, USA, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health, 1990.
  20. J. R. Hughes, J. Keely, and S. Naud, “Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers,” Addiction, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. National Cancer Institute, “Cigarette smoking behavior in the United States,” in Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risks and Their Implication for Prevention and Control, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 8, D. Burns, L. Lee, and L. Shen, Eds., pp. 13–112, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  22. R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, and I. Sutherland, “Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 Years' observations on male British doctors,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7455, pp. 1519–1528, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Perlman and M. Bobak, “Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants of Mortality in Posttransition Russia: A Prospective Population Study,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 92–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Economic Intelligence Unit, Worldwide cost of living, 2010.
  25. OECD, OECD Data, 2011.
  26. F. J. Chaloupka, T. Hu, K. E. Warner, R. Jacobs, and A. Yurekli, “The taxation of tobacco products,” in Tobacco Control in Developing Countries, P. Jha and F. Chaloupka, Eds., pp. 237–272, Oxford University Press, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. Hanewinkel, C. Radden, and T. Rosenkranz, “Price increase causes fewer sales of factory-made cigarettes and higher sales of cheaper loose tobacco in Germany,” Health Economics, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 683–693, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. T. Levy and K. Friend, “A framework for evaluating and improving clean indoor air laws,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 87–96, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Blecher, “The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries,” Journal of Health Economics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 930–942, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Hammond, G. T. Fong, R. Borland, K. M. Cummings, A. McNeill, and P. Driezen, “Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages. Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 202–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. C. Willemsen, “The new EU cigarette health warnings benefit smokers who want to quit the habit: Results from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits,” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 389–392, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Bala, L. Strzeszynski, and K. Cahill, “Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD004704, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. T. Levy and K. B. Friend, “A simulation model of tobacco youth access policies,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1023–1050, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Baška, H. Sovinová, A. Németh et al., “Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia—smoking initiation, prevalence of tobacco use and cessation,” Sozial- und Praventivmedizin, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 110–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. H. Sovinová, L. Csemy, C. W. Warren, J. Lee, and V. Lea, “Changes in tobacco use among 13–15-year-olds in the czech republic—2002 and 2007,” Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 199–204, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. B. Abrams, A. L. Graham, D. T. Levy, P. L. Mabry, and C. T. Orleans, “Boosting population quits through evidence-based cessation treatment and policy,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. S351–S363, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Shiffman, J. Gitchell, J. M. Pinney, S. L. Burton, K. E. Kemper, and E. A. Lara, “Public health benefit of over-the-counter nicotine medications,” Tobacco Control, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 306–310, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Hyland, H. Rezaishiraz, G. Giovino, J. E. Bauer, and K. M. Cummings, “Over-the-counter availability of nicotine replacement therapy and smoking cessation,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 547–556, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Kralikova, “Increasing the level of information about smoking cessation in Prague,” Project of the City Hall Prague, 2007.
  40. H. Sovinová, P. Sadílek, and L. Csemy, “Vývoj Prevalence Kuřáctví V Dospělé Populaci České Republiky (1991–2009),” Development Of The Prevalence Of Smoking In The Adult Population Of The Czech Republic—Part I, 2011.