Table of Contents
ISRN Minimally Invasive Surgery
Volume 2012, Article ID 364285, 9 pages
Research Article

High-Resolution Optical Imaging of Benign and Malignant Mucosa in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An Atlas for Image-Guided Surgery

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
2Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
4Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
5Division of Surgery, Head & Neck Surgery Department, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 18 June 2012; Accepted 9 July 2012

Academic Editors: M. Barczyński and K. J. Dedes

Copyright © 2012 Lauren L. Levy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. High-resolution optical imaging provides real-time visualization of mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) which allows non-invasive discrimination of benign and neoplastic epithelium. The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) utilizes a fiberoptic probe in conjunction with a tissue contrast agent to display nuclei and cellular architecture. This technology has broad potential applications to intraoperative margin detection and early cancer detection. Methods. Our group has created an extensive image collection of both neoplastic and normal epithelium of the UADT. Here, we present and describe imaging characteristics of benign, dysplastic, and malignant mucosa in the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Results. There are differences in the nuclear organization and overall tissue architecture of benign and malignant mucosa which correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. Different anatomic subsites also display unique imaging characteristics. Conclusion. HRME allows discrimination between benign and neoplastic mucosa, and familiarity with the characteristics of each subsite facilitates correct diagnosis.