Table of Contents
ISRN Thermodynamics
Volume 2012, Article ID 373202, 16 pages
Research Article

Mixed Convection Heat Transfer for Nanofluids in a Lid-Driven Shallow Rectangular Cavity Uniformly Heated and Cooled from the Vertical Sides: The Cooperative Case

1Laboratory of Flows and Transfers Modelling (LAMET), Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, BP 523, Beni-Mellal, Morocco
2Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Research in Sciences and Technologies (LIRST), Polydisciplinary Faculty, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, BP 592, Beni-Mellal, Morocco
3Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Energetics (LMFE), Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, BP 2390, Marrakech, Morocco

Received 19 September 2012; Accepted 15 October 2012

Academic Editors: R. J. Abergel, M. Manciu, and S. Yulin

Copyright © 2012 Hassan Elharfi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A study of mixed convection, in a shallow lid-driven rectangular cavity filled with water-based nanofluids and subjected to uniform heat flux along the vertical side walls, has been performed numerically by solving the full governing equations via the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm. In the limit of a shallow enclosure, these equations have been considerably reduced by using the parallel flow approximation. Solutions, for the flow and temperature fields, and the heat transfer rate, have been obtained as functions of the governing parameters, namely, the Reynolds (Re) and the Richardson (Ri) numbers and the solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (Φ). A good agreement has been obtained between the results of the two approaches for a wide range of the governing parameters. Moreover, it has been found that the addition of Cu-nanoparticles, into the pure water, leads to an enhancement or a degradation of heat transfer depending on the values of Re and Ri.