The Dual Role of TGFβ in Human Cancer: From Tumor Suppression to Cancer Metastasis
Mutations and deletions in the TGF signaling pathway. While expression of TGF itself is often increased in human tumors, expression of the genes encoding various components of the TGF signaling cascade (receptor type I and type II, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4) are often mutated or deleted in human cancer. Occurrence of mutation and deletion and incidence rates in different human cancers are indicated in percentages. Loss of heterozygosity (LH) is also indicated.
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