International Scholarly Research Notices / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Dual Role of TGFβ in Human Cancer: From Tumor Suppression to Cancer Metastasis

Table 1

Mutations and deletions in the TGF signaling pathway. While expression of TGF itself is often increased in human tumors, expression of the genes encoding various components of the TGF signaling cascade (receptor type I and type II, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4) are often mutated or deleted in human cancer. Occurrence of mutation and deletion and incidence rates in different human cancers are indicated in percentages. Loss of heterozygosity (LH) is also indicated.


Increased expression:
breast (68%), lung (48%), pancreas (47%), esophagus (37%), stomach (23%), colon, prostate.

colon (28%), ovary (25%), head and neck carcinoma (21%), stomach (15%), breast (12%), lung, endometrium, liver, uterus, biliary track, glyomas.

ovary (30%), head and neck carcinoma (17%, LH 53%), bladder (LH 31%), prostate (25%), breast (6%), biliary track.

colon (8%), uterus (8%), liver, lung.

lymphoblastic leukemia, stomach.

pancreas (50%, LH 90%, deletion 30%), colon (LH 60%), stomach (LH 60%), lung (LH 56%), breast (12%, LH 30%), head and neck carcinoma (LH 40%), prostate (LH 30%), biliary track (16%), uterus (4%), bladder, oesophagus, kidney, liver, ovary

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.