Table of Contents
ISRN Orthopedics
Volume 2012, Article ID 396718, 5 pages
Research Article

The Biomechanical Effect of the Sensomotor Insole on a Pediatric Intoeing Gait

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan
2Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
3Semui College, Tokai College of Medical Science, 2-7-2 Meiekiminami, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 450-0003, Japan
4The Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, 713-8 Kagiya-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 480-0392, Japan

Received 29 July 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012

Academic Editors: C.-H. Lee, A. Leithner, and S.-J. Lim

Copyright © 2012 Akiyoshi Mabuchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. The sensomotor insole (SMI) has clinically been shown to be successful in treating an intoeing gait. We investigated the biomechanical effect of SMI on a pediatric intoeing gait by using three-dimensional gait analysis. Methods. Six patients with congenital clubfeet and four patients with idiopathic intoeing gait were included. There were five boys and five girls with the average age at testing of 5.6 years. The torsional profile of the lower limb was assessed clinically. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in the same shoes with and without SMI. Results. All clubfeet patients exhibited metatarsal adductus, while excessive femoral anteversion and/or internal tibial torsion was found in patients with idiopathic intoeing gait. SMI showed significant decreased internal rotation of the proximal femur in terminal swing phase and loading response phase. The internal rotation of the tibia was significantly smaller in mid stance phase and terminal stance phase by SMI. In addition, SMI significantly increased the walking speed and the step length. Conclusions. SMI improved abnormal gait patterns of pediatric intoeing gait by decreasing femoral internal rotation through the end of the swing phase and the beginning of the stance phase and by decreasing tibial internal rotation during the stance phase.