Table of Contents
ISRN Emergency Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 417313, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Serum Levels of Biochemical Markers of Traumatic Brain Injury

1Division of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
3Nexus DX, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
4Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8
5Department of Family Medicine, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5

Received 6 September 2011; Accepted 9 October 2011

Academic Editors: A. K. Attri, P. Eisenburger, and W. Kloeck

Copyright Β© 2012 Keith Borg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. A biomarker would be valuable in the diagnosis, risk stratification and prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. We measured serum levels of S-100β, neuron specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in 50 TBI subjects, and 50 age and gender matched controls. Patients were recruited within 6 hours of the initial injury, they had an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 14 or less, or a GCS score of 15 with witnessed loss of consciousness (LOC) or amnesia. Results. S-100β, NSE and MBP levels were significantly higher in TBI subjects than in control subjects ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 for S-100β and NSE; 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 9 for MBP). Initial S-100β levels were significantly higher in TBI subjects who had not retuned to normal activities 2 weeks following their injury than in TBI subjects who had retuned to normal activities ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 2 2 ). MBP levels were higher in TBI subjects with positive findings on the baseline CT scan than in CT-negative subjects ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 7 ). Conclusions. S-100β, NSE and MBP may be present in the sera of TBI subjects in elevated quantities relative to controls. S-100β may aid in predicting short-term outcome in TBI subjects.