Table of Contents
ISRN Emergency Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 417313, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/417313
Clinical Study

Serum Levels of Biochemical Markers of Traumatic Brain Injury

1Division of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
3Nexus DX, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
4Division of Cardiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8
5Department of Family Medicine, Sunnybrook and Women’s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5

Received 6 September 2011; Accepted 9 October 2011

Academic Editors: A. K. Attri, P. Eisenburger, and W. Kloeck

Copyright © 2012 Keith Borg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Schootman and L. J. Fuortes, “Ambulatory care for traumatic brain injuries in the US, 1995–1997,” Brain Injury, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 373–381, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Langlois, W. Rutland-Brown, and K. E. Thomas, Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nation Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2006.
  3. E. C. P. Finkelstein and T. Miller, The Incidence and Economic Burden of Injuries in the United States, Oxford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  4. P. E. Marik, J. Varon, and T. Trask, “Management of head trauma,” Chest, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 688–711, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. W. McAllister, M. B. Sparling, L. A. Flashman, and A. J. Saykin, “Neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 775–791, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. McCullagh, D. Ouchterlony, A. Protzner, N. Blair, and A. Feinstein, “Prediction of neuropsychiatric outcome following mild trauma brain injury: an examination of the Glasgow Coma Scale,” Brain Injury, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 489–497, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Strand, C. Alling, and B. Karlsson, “Brain and plasma proteins in spinal fluid as markers for brain damage and severity of stroke,” Stroke, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 138–144, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. I. Qureshi, “Evaluation of brain injury using a blood test: is there a role in clinical practice?” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2778–2779, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ingebrigtsen, K. Waterloo, E. A. Jacobsen, B. Langbakk, and B. Romner, “Traumatic brain damage in minor head injury: relation of serum S-100 protein measurements to magnetic resonance imaging and neurobehavioral outcome,” Neurosurgery, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 468–476, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Ingebrigtsen and B. Romner, “Biochemical serum markers of traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 798–808, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. G. M. Jackson, G. S. Samra, J. Radcliffe, G. H. Clark, and C. P. Price, “The early fall in levels of S-100 β in traumatic brain injury,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1165–1167, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. P. Berger, M. C. Pierce, S. R. Wisniewski, P. D. Adelson, and P. M. Kochanek, “Serum S100B concentrations are increased after closed head injury in children: a preliminary study,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1405–1409, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. D. Hill, G. Jackowski, N. Bayer, M. Lawrence, and R. Jaeschke, “Biochemical markers in acute ischemic stroke,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 162, no. 8, pp. 1139–1140, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. P. Berger, M. C. Pierce, S. R. Wisniewski et al., “Neuron-specific enolase and S100B in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 2, p. E31, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. Chamczuk, M. Ursell, P. O'Connor, G. Jackowski, and M. A. Moscarello, “A rapid ELISA-based serum assay for myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 262, no. 1-2, pp. 21–27, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Yamazaki, K. Yada, S. Morii, T. Kitahara, and T. Ohwada, “Diagnostic significance of serum neuron-specific enolase and myelin basic protein assay in patients with acute head injury,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 267–271, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Takahashi, A. Chamczuk, Y. Hong, and G. Jackowski, “Rapid and sensitive immunoassay for the measurement of serum S100B using isoform-specific monoclonal antibody,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 8 I, pp. 1307–1311, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. G. Stiell, G. A. Wells, K. Vandemheen et al., “The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9266, pp. 1391–1396, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Hanley and B. J. McNeil, “A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases,” Radiology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 839–843, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. R. De Kruijk, P. Leffers, P. P. C. A. Menheere, S. Meerhoff, and A. Twijnstra, “S-100β and neuron-specific enolase in serum of mild traumatic brain injury patients. A comparison with healthy controls,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 175–179, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Ingebrigtsen and B. Romner, “Biochemical serum markers for brain damage: a short review with emphasis on clinical utility in mild head injury,” Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 171–176, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Raabe, C. Grolms, and V. Seifert, “Serum markers of brain damage and outcome prediction in patients after severe head injury,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56–59, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. T. Wunderlich, A. D. Ebert, T. Kratz, M. Goertler, S. Jost, and M. Herrmann, “Early neurobehavioral outcome after stroke is related to release of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1190–1195, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Herrmann, N. Curio, S. Jost et al., “Release of biochemical markers of damage to neuronal and glial brain tissue is associated with short and long term neuropsychological outcome after traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 95–100, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Ishida, T. Gohara, R. Kawata, K. Ohtake, Y. Morimoto, and T. Sakabe, “Are serum S100β proteins and neuron-specific enolase predictors of cerebral damage in cardiovascular surgery?” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Rothermundt, M. Peters, J. H. Prehn, and V. Arolt, “S100B in brain damage and neurodegeneration,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 614–632, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. E. Andersen, L. O. Hansson, O. Nilsson, R. Dijlai-Merzoug, and G. Settergren, “High serum S100b levels for trauma patients without head injuries,” Neurosurgery, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1255–1260, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. R. Cohen, R. M. Herndon, and G. M. McKhann, “Radioimmunoassay of myelin basic protein in spinal fluid: an index of active demyelination,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 295, no. 26, pp. 1455–1457, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. S. Jagoda, S. V. Cantrill, R. L. Wears et al., “Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 231–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. K. Ng, R. D. Mahaliyana, and W. S. Poon, “The pathological spectrum of diffuse axonal injury in blunt head trauma: assessment with axon and myelin stains,” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. M. Teasdale, J. A. R. Nicoll, G. Murray, and M. Fiddes, “Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after head injury,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9084, pp. 1069–1071, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus