Table of Contents
ISRN Ophthalmology
Volume 2012, Article ID 456209, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/456209
Review Article

Exogenous Endophthalmitis in Diabetic Patients: A Systemic Review

The Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon

Received 2 August 2012; Accepted 26 August 2012

Academic Editors: N. Ardjomand and I. J. Wang

Copyright © 2012 Georges M. El-Mollayess et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. M. Kattan, H. W. Flynn, S. C. Pflugfelder, C. Robertson, and R. K. Forster, “Nosocomial endophthalmitis survey: current incidence of infection after intraocular surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 227–238, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. R. May and G. A. Peyman, “Endophthalmitis after vitrectomy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 520–521, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. C. Callegan, M. Engelbert, D. W. Parke, B. D. Jett, and M. S. Gilmore, “Bacterial endophthalmitis: epidemiology, therapeutics, and bacterium-host interactions,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 111–124, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. P. Moutschen, A. J. Scheen, and P. J. Lefebvre, “Impaired immune responses in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the factors and mechanisms involved. Relevance to the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients to specific infections,” Diabete et Metabolisme, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 187–201, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. S. Al-Kassab and S. Raziuddin, “Immune activation and T cell subset abnormalities in circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type I diabetes mellitus,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 267–271, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. K. Abrass, “Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis: abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Carnazzo, G. Mirone, A. Turturici et al., “Pathophysiology of the immune system in elderly subjects with or without diabetes and variations after recombinant interleukin-2,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 163–180, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. C. Alba-Loureiro, C. D. Munhoz, J. O. Martins et al., “Neutrophil function and metabolism in individuals with diabetes mellitus,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1037–1044, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Mowat and J. Baum, “Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 284, no. 12, pp. 621–627, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Bilen, O. Ates, N. Astam, H. Uslu, G. Akcay, and O. Baykal, “Conjunctival flora in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1028–1035, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Friend, Y. Ishii, and R. A. Thoft, “Corneal epithelial changes in diabetic rats,” Ophthalmic Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 269–278, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. R. Taylor and R. A. Kimsey, “Corneal epithelial basement membrane changes in diabetes,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 548–553, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. T. Azar, S. J. Spurr-Michaud, A. S. Tisdale, and I. K. Gipson, “Altered epithelial-basement membrane interactions in diabetic corneas,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 537–540, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. S. Zagon, J. W. Sassani, and P. J. McLaughlin, “Insulin treatment ameliorates impaired corneal reepithelialization in diabetic rats,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1141–1147, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Inoue, K. Okugawa, S. Amano et al., “Blinking and superficial punctate keratopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Eye, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 418–421, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. U. Rehany, Y. Ishii, M. Lahav, and S. Rumelt, “Ultrastructural changes in corneas of diabetic patients: an electron-microscopy study,” Cornea, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 534–538, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. S. Saini and B. Khandalavla, “Corneal epithelial fragility in diabetes mellitus,” Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 142–146, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. D. Manning and L. C. Cantley, “AKT/PKB signaling: navigating downstream,” Cell, vol. 129, no. 7, pp. 1261–1274, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. J. Panka, M. B. Atkins, and J. W. Mier, “Targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the treatment of malignant melanoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 2371s–2375s, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. N. Rao, “Dr. P. Siva Reddy Oration. Diabetic keratopathy,” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 35, no. 5-6, pp. 16–36, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. P. Xu, Y. Li, A. V. Ljubimov, and F. S. X. Yu, “High glucose suppresses epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/akt signaling pathway and attenuates corneal epithelial wound healing,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1077–1085, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Xu and F. S. Yu, “Impaired epithelial wound healing and EGFR signaling pathways in the corneas of diabetic rats,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 3301–3308, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. C. Javitt, S. Vitale, J. K. Canner et al., “National outcomes of cataract extraction: endophthalmitis following inpatient surgery,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 1085–1089, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. F. Allen and A. B. Mangiaracine, “Bacterial endophthalmitis after cataract extraction: a study of 22 infections in 20,000 operations,” Archives of ophthalmology, vol. 72, pp. 454–462, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. M. Aaberg, H. W. Flynn, J. Schiffman, and J. Newton, “Nosocomial acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis survey: a 10-year review of incidence and outcomes,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1004–1010, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. G. Eifrig, H. W. Flynn Jr., I. U. Scott, and J. Newton, “Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis: review of incidence and visual outcomes (1995–2001),” Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 373–378, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. C. Ho and F. I. Tolentino, “Bacterial endophthalmitis after closed vitrectomy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 207–210, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. W. G. Eifrig, I. U. Scott, H. W. Flynn, W. E. Smiddy, and J. Newton, “Endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy: incidence, causative organisms, and visual acuity outcomes,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 799–802, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Sakamoto, H. Enaida, T. Kubota et al., “Incidence of acute endophthalmitis after triamcinolone-assisted pars plana vitrectomy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 137–138, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Hu, and R. Gao, “Clinical features of endophthalmitis after vitreoretinal surgery,” Yan Ke Xue Bao, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Y. Kunimoto and R. S. Kaiser, “Incidence of Endophthalmitis after 20- and 25-Gauge Vitrectomy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 12, pp. 2133–2137, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. M. Cohen, H. W. Flynn, T. G. Murray et al., “Endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 705–712, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. U. Scott, H. W. Flynn, S. Dev et al., “Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge and 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy: incidence and outcomes,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 138–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Parolini, F. Romanelli, G. Prigione, and G. Pertile, “Incidence of endophthalmitis in a large series of 23-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 247, no. 7, pp. 895–898, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. G. Montan, G. Koranyi, H. E. Setterquist, A. Stridh, B. T. Philipson, and K. Wiklund, “Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: risk factors relating to technique and events of the operation and patient history: a retrospective case-control study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 2171–2177, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. U. Scott, H. W. Flynn, and W. Feuer, “Endophthalmitis after secondary intraocular lens implantation: a case- control study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 1925–1931, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Dev, J. S. Pulido, H. H. Tessler et al., “Progression of diabetic retinopathy after endophthalmitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 774–781, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. H. Doft, S. R. Wisniewski, S. F. Kelsey, and S. Groer-Fitzgerald, “Diabetes and postcataract extraction endophthalmitis,” Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 147–151, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. I. S. Jain, C. L. Luthra, and T. Das, “Diabetic retinopathy and its relation to errors of refraction,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 59–60, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Doft, T. Nakamura, A. F. Walonker et al., “Results of the endophthalmitis vitrectomy study: a randomized trial of immediate vitrectomy and of intravenous antibiotics for the treatment of postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 12, pp. 1479–1496, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. B. Phillips and W. S. Tasman, “Postoperative endophthalmitis in association with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 508–518, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. H. Doft, “Treatment of postcataract extraction endophthalmitis: a summary of the results from the endophthalmitis vitrectomy study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 554–556, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. O. Graham and G. A. Peyman, “Intravitreal injection of dexamethasone. Treatment of experimentally induced endophthalmitis,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. S. Park, N. Samiy, K. Ruoff, D. J. D'Amico, and A. S. Baker, “Effect of intravitreal dexamethasone in treatment of pneumococcal endophthalmitis in rabbits,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 1324–1329, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. K. Mao, H. W. Flynn, D. Miller, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 584–589, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. D. Irvine, H. W. Flynn, D. Miller, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Endophthalmitis caused by gram-negative organisms,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1450–1454, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. I. M. Gan, L. C. Ugahary, J. T. van Dissel et al., “Intravitreal dexamethasone as adjuvant in the treatment of postoperative endophthalmitis: a prospective randomized trial,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 243, no. 12, pp. 1200–1205, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. K. Shah, J. D. Stein, S. Sharma et al., “Visual outcomes following the use of intravitreal steroids in the treatment of postoperative endophthalmitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 486–489, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. D. Jett, H. G. Jensen, R. V. Atkuri, and M. S. Gilmore, “Evaluation of therapeutic measures for treating endophthalmitis caused by isogenic toxin-producing and toxin-nonproducing Enterococcus faecalis strains,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. H. Doft, S. R. Wisniewski, S. F. Kelsey, and S. G. Fitzgerald, “Diabetes and postoperative endophthalmitis in the endophthalmitis vitrectomy study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 650–656, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. L. Cavalcante, M. L. Cavalcante, T. G. Murray et al., “Intravitreal injection analysis at the Bascom palmer eye institute: evaluation of clinical indications for the treatment and incidence rates of endophthalmitis,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 519–524, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. R. Fintak, G. K. Shah, K. J. Blinder et al., “Incidence of endophthalmitis related to intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1395–1399, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. O. Mason, M. F. White, R. M. Feist et al., “Incidence of acute onset endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) injection,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 564–567, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Pilli, A. Kotsolis, R. F. Spaide et al., “Endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy injections in an office setting,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 879–882, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. U. Scott and H. W. Flynn, “Reducing the risk of endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 10–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. M. El-Mollayess, B. N. Noureddine, and Z. F. Bashshur, “Bevacizumab and neovascular age related macular degeneration: pathogenesis and treatment,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 69–76, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. S. Klein, M. K. Walsh, T. S. Hassan et al., “Endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injections,” Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 6, p. 1225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. R. Bhavsar, J. M. Googe, C. R. Stockdale et al., “Risk of endophthalmitis after intravitreal drug injection when topical antibiotics are not required: the diabetic retinopathy clinical research network laser-ranibizumab-triamcinolone clinical trials,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 1581–1583, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Diago, C. A. McCannel, S. J. Bakri, J. S. Pulido, A. O. Edwards, and J. M. Pach, “Infectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic agents,” Retina, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 601–605, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. G. Speaker and J. A. Menikoff, “Prophylaxis of endophthalmitis with topical povidone-iodine,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 1769–1775, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. R. J. Taylor and G. W. Aylward, “Endophthalmitis following 25-gauge vitrectomy,” Eye, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1228–1229, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Taban, R. L. Ufret-Vincenty, and J. E. Sears, “Endophthalmitis after 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy,” Retina, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 830–831, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Shimada, H. Nakashizuka, T. Hattori, R. Mori, Y. Mizutani, and M. Yuzawa, “Incidence of endophthalmitis after 20- and 25-Gauge vitrectomy. Causes and prevention,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 2215–2220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Y. H. Hu, J. L. Bourges, S. P. Shah et al., “Endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy: a 20- and 25-gauge comparison,” Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1360–1365, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. O. Mason, J. J. Yunker, R. S. Vail et al., “Incidence of endophthalmitis following 20-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1352–1354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. K. Chen, R. N. Khurana, Q. D. Nguyen, and D. V. Do, “The incidence of endophthalmitis following transconjunctival sutureless 25- vs. 20-gauge vitrectomy,” Eye, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 780–784, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. Matsuyama, K. Kunitomi, M. Taomoto, and T. Nishimura, “Early-onset endophthalmitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis after 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 508–510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. N. Acar, Y. B. Unver, T. Altan, and Z. Kapran, “Acute endophthalmitis after 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 361–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. M. Bahrani, A. A. Fazelat, M. Thomas et al., “Endophthalmitis in the era of small gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomymeta analysis and review of literature,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 25, no. 5-6, pp. 275–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Keshavamurthy, P. Venkatesh, and S. Garg, “Ultrasound biomicroscopy findings of 25 G Transconjuctival sutureless (TSV) and conventional (20G) pars plana sclerotomy in the same patient,” BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 6, article 7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Singh, J. A. Chen, and J. M. Stewart, “Ocular surface fluid contamination of sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy incisions,” Retina, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 553–557, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Kreiger, “Sclerotomy complications following pars plana vitrectomy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 121–122, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Y. Fujii, E. De Juan, M. S. Humayun et al., “A new 25-gauge instrument system for transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 1807–1812, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. A. Meredith, “Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics in endoph-thalmitis treatment: studies of ceftazidime,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 91, pp. 653–699, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. D. M. Chen, Q. Mohammed, B. Bowling et al., “Vitreous wick syndrome—a potential cause of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone through the pars plana,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 1159–1161, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. F. U. Huamonte, M. N. Cyrlin, H. H. Tessler, and M. F. Goldberg, “Retinopathy in diabetes associated with sarcoidosis,” Annals of Ophthalmology, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1290–1297, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. J. Jaffe and T. C. Burton, “Progression of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy following cataract extraction,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 745–749, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. J. Jaffe, T. C. Burton, E. Kuhn, A. Prescott, and A. Hartz, “Progression of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and visual outcome after extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 448–456, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Pollack, S. Dotan, and M. Oliver, “Progression of diabetic retinopathy after cataract extraction,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 547–551, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H. Cheng and S. L. Franklin, “Treatment of cataract in diabetics with and without retinopathy,” Eye, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 607–614, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. Schatz, D. Atienza, H. R. McDonald, and R. N. Johnson, “Severe diabetic retinopathy after cataract surgery,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 314–321, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. I. A. Cunliffe, D. W. Flanagan, N. D. L. George, R. J. Aggarwaal, and A. T. Moore, “Extracapsular cataract surgery with lens implantation in diabetics with and without proliferative retinopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. Y. Y. Lai, A. K. H. Kwok, D. S. C. Lam, P. Bhende, S. Dev, and J. S. Pulido, “Progression of diabetic retinopathy after endophthalmitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 619–621, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus