`ISRN Applied MathematicsVolumeΒ 2012, Article IDΒ 475463, 14 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/475463`
Research Article

## Generalized π€-Euler Numbers and Polynomials

Department of Mathematics, Hannam University, Daejeon 306-791, Republic of Korea

Received 28 October 2011; Accepted 4 December 2011

Academic Editors: A. J.Β Kearsley and D.Β Kuhl

Copyright Β© 2012 H. Y. Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We generalize the Euler numbers and polynomials by the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials . For the complement theorem, have interesting different properties from the Euler polynomials and we observe an interesting phenomenon of βscatteringβ of the zeros of the the generalized Euler polynomials in complex plane.

#### 1. Introduction

The Euler numbers and polynomials possess many interesting properties and arising in many areas of mathematics and physics. Recently, many mathematicians have studied in the area of the Euler numbers and polynomials (see [1β15]). In [14], we introduced that Euler equation has symmetrical roots for (see [14]). It is the aim of this paper to observe an interesting phenomenon of βscatteringβ of the zeros of the the generalized -Euler polynomials in complex plane. Throughout this paper we use the following notations. By we denote the ring of -adic rational integers, denotes the field of -adic rational numbers, denotes the completion of algebraic closure of denotes the set of natural numbers, denotes the ring of rational integers, denotes the field of rational numbers, denotes the set of complex numbers, and . Let be the normalized exponential valuation of with . When one talks of -extension, is considered in many ways such as an indeterminate, a complex number , or -adic number . If one normally assumes that . If , we normally assume that so that for .

For Kim defined the fermionic -adic -integral on : (cf. [5β7]).

If we take in (1.2), then we easily see that From (1.3), we obtain where (cf. [1β15]).

As a well-known definition, the Euler polynomials are defined by with the usual convention of replacing by . In the special case, are called the th Euler numbers (cf. [1β15]).

Our aim in this paper is to define the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials . We investigate some properties which are related to the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials . In particular, distribution of roots for is different from βs. We also derive the existence of a specific interpolation function which interpolate the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials.

#### 2. The Generalized π€-Euler Numbers and Polynomials

Our primary goal of this section is to define the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials . We also find generating functions of the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials . Let be strictly positive real number.

The generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials are defined by respectively.

From above definition, we obtain

Let . By (1.3) and using -adic integral on , we have

Hence, by (2.1), we obtain

By (1.3), (2.2) and , we have

After some elementary calculations, we obtain

From (2.6), we have with the usual convention of replacing by .

#### 3. Basic Properties for the Generalized π€-Euler Numbers and Polynomials

By (2.5), we have

By (3.1), we have the following differential relation.

Theorem 3.1. For positive integers , one has

By Theorem 3.1, we easily obtain the following corollary.

Corollary 3.2 (Integral formula). One has

By (2.5), we obtain

By comparing coefficients of in the above equation, we arrive at the following addition theorem.

Theorem 3.3 (Addition theorem). For ,

By (2.5), for , we have By comparing coefficients of in the above equation, we arrive at the following multiplication theorem.

Theorem 3.4 (Multiplication theorem). For

From (1.3), we note that From the above, we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 3.5. For , one has

By (2.8) in the above, we arrive at the following corollary.

Corollary 3.6. For , one has with the usual convention of replacing by .

From (1.4), we note that

By comparing coefficients of in the above equation, we arrive at the following theorem.

Theorem 3.7. For , one has

#### 4. The Analogue of the Euler Zeta Function

By using the generalized -Euler numbers and polynomials, the generalized -Euler zeta function and the generalized Hurwitz -Euler zeta functions are defined. These functions interpolate the generalized -Euler numbers and -Euler polynomials, respectively. Let

By applying derivative operator, to the above equation, we have

By using the above equation, we are now ready to define the generalized -Euler zeta functions.

Definition 4.1. For , one defines

Note that is a meromorphic function on . Note that if and , then which is the Hurwitz Euler zeta functions. Relation between and is given by the following theorem.

Theorem 4.2. For , one has

Observe that function interpolates numbers at nonnegative integers.

By using (4.2), we note that Hence, we obtain

By using the above equation, we are now ready to define the generalized Hurwitz -Euler zeta functions.

Definition 4.3. Let . One defines Note that is a meromorphic function on . Obverse that, if and , then which is the Euler zeta functions. Relation between and is given by the following theorem.

Theorem 4.4. For , one has Observe that function interpolates numbers at nonnegative integers.

#### 5. Zeros of the Generalized π€-Euler Polynomials πΈπ,π€(π₯βΆπ)

In this section, we investigate the reflection symmetry of the zeros of the generalized -Euler polynomials .

In the special case, are called generalized Euler polynomials . Since we have We observe that has reflection symmetry in addition to the usual reflection symmetry analytic complex functions.

Let Then we have Hence, we arrive at the following complement theorem.

Theorem 5.1 (Complement theorem). For ,

Throughout the numerical experiments, we can finally conclude that has not reflection symmetry analytic complex functions. However, we observe that has reflection symmetry (see Figures 1, 2, and 3). The obvious corollary is that the zeros of will also inherit these symmetries: where denotes complex conjugation (see Figures 1, 2 and 3).

Figure 1: Zeros of for .
Figure 2: Real zeros of for .
Figure 3: Zeros of for .

We investigate the beautiful zeros of the generalized -Euler polynomials by using a computer. We plot the zeros of the generalized Euler polynomials for , and (Figure 1).

In Figure 1(a), we choose , and . In Figure 1(b), we choose , and . In Figure 1(c), we choose , and . In Figure 1(d), we choose , and .

Plots of real zeros of for structure are presented (Figure 2).

In Figure 2(a), we choose and . In Figure 2(b), we choose and . In Figure 2(c), we choose and . In Figure 2(d), we choose and .

We investigate the beautiful zeros of the generalized by using a computer. We plot the zeros of the generalized -Euler polynomials for and (Figure 3).

In Figure 3(a), we choose and . In Figure 3(b), we choose and . In Figure 3(c), we choose and . In Figure 3(d), we choose and .

Stacks of zeros of for from a 3D structure are presented (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Stacks of zeros of for .

Our numerical results for approximate solutions of real zeros of the generalized are displayed (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1: Numbers of real and complex zeros of .
Table 2: Approximate solutions of .

We observe a remarkably regular structure of the complex roots of the generalized -Euler polynomials . We hope to verify a remarkably regular structure of the complex roots of the generalized -Euler polynomials (Table 1). Next, we calculated an approximate solution satisfying . The results are given in Table 2.

The plot above shows the generalized -Euler polynomials for real and , with the zero contour indicated in black (Figure 5). In Figure 5(a), we choose and . In Figure 5(b), we choose and . In Figure 5(c), we choose and . In Figure 5(d), we choose and .

Figure 5: Zero contour of .

Finally, we will consider the more general problems. How many roots does have? This is an open problem. Prove or disprove: has distinct solutions. Find the numbers of complex zeros of . Since is the degree of the polynomial , the number of real zeros lying on the real plane is then , where denotes complex zeros. See Table 1 for tabulated values of and . We plot the zeros of , respectively (Figures 1β5). These figures give mathematicians an unbounded capacity to create visual mathematical investigations of the behavior of the roots of the . Moreover, it is possible to create a new mathematical ideas and analyze them in ways that, generally, are not possible by hand. The authors have no doubt that investigation along this line will lead to a new approach employing numerical method in the field of research of -Euler polynomials to appear in mathematics and physics.

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