Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 485307, 5 pages
Clinical Study

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency and Hyperparathyroidism in HIV-Infected Patients Treated in Barcelona

Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain

Received 25 April 2012; Accepted 23 May 2012

Academic Editors: S. Blanche and P. Price

Copyright © 2012 Elisabet Lerma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vitamin D deficiency is an important problem in patients with chronic conditions including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism in HIV patients attended in Barcelona. Cholecalciferol (25OH vitamin D3) and PTH levels were measured. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OH) D < 20 ng/mL and deficiency as <12 ng/mL. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH levels >65 pg/mL. Cases with chronic kidney failure, liver disease, treatments or conditions potentially affecting bone metabolism were excluded. Among the 566 patients included, 56.4% were exposed to tenofovir. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 71.2% and 39.6% of those had deficiency. PTH was measured in 228 subjects, and 86 of them (37.7%) showed high levels. Adjusted predictors of vitamin D deficiency were nonwhite race and psychiatric comorbidity, while lipoatrophy was a protective factor. Independent risk factors of hyperparathyroidism were vitamin D < 12 ng/mL (OR: 2.14, CI 95%: 1.19–3.82, P: 0.01) and tenofovir exposure (OR: 3.55, CI 95%: 1.62–7.7, P: 0.002). High prevalence of vitamin deficiency and hyperparathyroidism was found in an area with high annual solar exposure.