Table of Contents
ISRN AIDS
Volume 2012, Article ID 486425, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/486425
Clinical Study

Anogenital Lesions: Kaposi's Sarcoma and Its Mimicks

National Health Laboratory Service, Polokwane/Mankweng Hospital Complex and University of Limpopo, Groblersdal 0470, South Africa

Received 31 July 2012; Accepted 13 September 2012

Academic Editors: S. Ausayakhun and G. D'ettorre

Copyright © 2012 Louis-Jacques van Bogaert. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular neoplasm associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection, and, in the epidemic form, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although HHV-8 is present in all body fluids and is sexually transmitted, there are surprisingly few reports of anogenital KS. Clinically, especially in HIV/KS endemic areas, dark stained skin patches or nodules are prone to misdiagnosis, especially in dark-skinned individuals. Therefore, a biopsy is recommended. The histologic appearance spans a broad spectrum of KS and non-KS lesions; therefore, the final diagnosis should be confirmed by HHV-8 immunohistochemistry. We report a series of 36 anogenital biopsies from a group of 16 documented HIV-positive patients; in 20 the HIV serostatus was unknown. There were ten KS (five in HIV-positive patients), and 26 non-KS (11 in HIV-positive subjects) lesions. In the era of HIV/AIDS, anogenital lesions may be the first manifestation of KS in immunocompromised individuals and should be biopsied. The histological diagnosis should be confirmed by HHV-8 immunohistochemistry.