Table of Contents
ISRN AIDS
Volume 2012, Article ID 486425, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/486425
Clinical Study

Anogenital Lesions: Kaposi's Sarcoma and Its Mimicks

National Health Laboratory Service, Polokwane/Mankweng Hospital Complex and University of Limpopo, Groblersdal 0470, South Africa

Received 31 July 2012; Accepted 13 September 2012

Academic Editors: S. Ausayakhun and G. D'ettorre

Copyright © 2012 Louis-Jacques van Bogaert. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Biryahwaho, S. C. Dollard, R. M. Pfeiffer et al., “Sex and geographic patterns of human herpesvirus 8 infection in a nationally representative population-based sample in Uganda,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 9, pp. 1347–1353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Johnston, J. Orem, F. Okuku et al., “Impact of HIV infection and Kaposi Sarcoma on human herpesvirus-8 mucosal replication and dissemination in Uganda,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 1, Article ID e4222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. M. Mbulaiteye, R. M. Pfeiffer, D. Whitby, G. R. Brubaker, J. Shao, and R. J. Biggar, “Human herpesvirus 8 infection within families in rural Tanzania,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 11, pp. 1780–1785, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Mbulaiteye, V. Marshall, R. K. Bagni et al., “Molecular evidence for mother-to-child transmission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in Uganda and K1 gene evolution within the host,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 193, no. 9, pp. 1250–1257, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. A. Adjei, H. B. Armah, F. Gbagbo, I. Boamah, C. Adu-Gyamfi, and I. Asare, “Seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV, and EBV among the general population in Ghana, West Africa,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, article 111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. M. Butler, W. A. Were, S. Balinandi et al., “Human herpesvirus 8 infection in children and adults in a population-based study in rural Uganda,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 203, no. 5, pp. 625–634, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Bagni and D. Whitby, “Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission and primary infection,” Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Dedicoat, R. Newton, K. R. Alkharsah et al., “Mother-to-child transmission of human herpesvirus-8 in South Africa,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, no. 6, pp. 1068–1075, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Wojcicki, “Traditional behavioural practices, the exchange of saliva and HHV-8 transmission in sub-Saharan African populations,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 2016–2017, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Wojcicki, R. Newton, M. I. Urban et al., “Risk factors for high anti-HHV-8 antibody titers (≥1:51,200) in black, HIV-1 negative South African cancer patients: a case control study,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, article 21, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. Wojcicki, C. Kankasa, C. Mitchell, and C. Wood, “Traditional practices and exposure to bodily fluids in Lusaka, Zambia,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 150–155, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. J. P. van Griensven, E. C. Boucher, and R. A. Coutinho, “Oro-anal sex and the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 77–78, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. A. Engels, J. O. Atkinson, B. I. Graubard et al., “Risk factors for human herpesvirus 8 infection among adults in the United States and evidence for sexual transmission,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 199–207, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Eltom, S. M. Mbulaiteye, A. J. Dada, D. Whitby, and R. J. Biggar, “Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by sexual activity among adults in Lagos, Nigeria,” AIDS, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 2473–2478, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Lavreys, B. Chohan, R. Ashley et al., “Human herpesvirus 8: seroprevalence and correlates in prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 3, pp. 359–363, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Henke-Gendo and T. F. Schultz, “Transmission and disease association of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus: recent developments,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. O. Bagasra, D. Patel, L. Bobroski et al., “Localization of human herpesvirus type 8 in human sperms by in situ PCR,” Journal of Molecular Histology, vol. 36, no. 6-7, pp. 401–412, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Dupuy, T. Schulz, S. Chevret et al., “Asymmetrical transmission of human herpesvirus 8 among spouses of patients with Kaposi sarcoma,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 540–545, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. B. Campbell, M. Borok, B. Ndemera et al., “Lack of evidence for frequent heterosexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 in zimbabwe,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1601–1608, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Monini, L. de Lellis, M. Fabris, F. Rigolin, and E. Cassai, “Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA sequences in prostate tissue and human semen,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 18, pp. 1168–1172, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. K. S. Chan, W. H. Li, M. Y. M. Chan, and A. F. B. Cheng, “Detection of human herpesvirus 8 in cervical cells of Chinese women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1584–1585, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. F. Audouin, P. Lopes, and Y. Lenne, “Kaposi's sarcoma of the uterine cervix and atypical condyloma in a female patient with a heart transplant (during the postpartal period),” Archives d'Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, vol. 36, no. 5-6, pp. 226–228, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. B. Rajah, J. Moodley, D. J. Pudifin, J. Duursma, and K. Cooper, “Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting as a vulval papilloma. A case report,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 585–586, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. Macasaet, A. Duerr, W. Thelmo, S. D. Vernon, and E. R. Linger, “Kaposi sarcoma presenting as a vulvar mass,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 695–697, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. M. Riggs and J. McCarthy, “Vulvar Kaposi's sarcoma in a woman with AIDS: a case report,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 730–732, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. W. Laartz, C. Cooper, A. Degryse, and J. T. Sinnott, “Wolf in sheep's clothing: advanced kaposi sarcoma mimicking vulvar abscess,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 475–477, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. H. Kim, J. I. Choi, K. H. Ryu et al., “Primary classic Kaposi's sarcoma of the penis in an HIV-negative patient,” Korean Journal of Urology, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 803–806, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Wamburu, E. J. Masenga, E. Z. Moshi, P. Schmid-Grendelmeier, W. Kempf, and C. E. Orfanos, “HIV—associated and non—HIV associated types of Kaposi's sarcoma in an African population in Tanzania. Status of immune suppression and HHV-8 seroprevalence,” European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 677–682, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. W. Mwanda, P. Fu, R. Collea, C. Whalen, and S. C. Remick, “Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, in a tertiary referral centre in Kenya,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 81–91, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. M. Chu, G. Mahlangeni, S. Swannet, N. P. Ford, A. Boulle, and G. Van Cutsem, “AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 13, no. 1, article 23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. A. Gordon, “Kaposi's sarcoma: a review of 136 Rhodesian African cases,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 43, no. 502, pp. 513–519, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. M. O'Connell, “Kaposi's sarcoma: histopathological study of 159 cases from Malawi,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 687–695, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Slavin, H. M. Cameron, and H. Singh, “Kaposi's sarcoma in mainland Tanzania: a report of 117 cases,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 349–357, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. M. Bluefarb, Kaposi's Sarcoma, Charles Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1957.
  35. E. Katongole-Mbidde, C. Banura, and M. Nakakeeto, “Diagnostic implications of genital Kaposi's sarcoma,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 499–502, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Z. Mohammed, E. J. C. Nwana, and A. N. Manasseh, “Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Nigerians,” Tropical Doctor, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 168–169, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. B. Kagu, H. A. Nggada, H. I. Garandawa, B. H. Askira, and M. A. Durosinmi, “AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Northeastern Nigeria,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1069–1074, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Phipps, F. Ssewankambo, H. Nguyen et al., “Gender differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of epidemic kaposi sarcoma in Uganda,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 11, Article ID e13936, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. R. Long, M. J. Whitfeld, C. Eades, J. E. Koehler, A. P. Korn, and C. J. Zaloudek, “Bacillary angiomatosis of the cervix and vulva in a patient with AIDS,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 709–711, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. L. Urquhart, A. Uzieblo, and S. Kohler, “Detection of HHV-8 in pyogenic granuloma-like kaposi sarcoma,” American Journal of Dermatopathology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 317–321, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus