Table of Contents
ISRN Biomathematics
Volume 2012, Article ID 516519, 11 pages
Research Article

Potential Impact of Male Circumcision, Condom Use, and Microbicides on the Dynamics of HIV/AIDS

1Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
2Mathematics Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Received 15 May 2012; Accepted 15 August 2012

Academic Editors: B. Foy and M. Santillán

Copyright © 2012 Felix Elias and Jean M. Tchuenche. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


HIV/AIDS remains an important global cause of morbidity and mortality. While medical male circumcision and condom and microbicides use hold great promise for helping to stem the tide of new HIV infections, theoretically providing further evidence of the potential long-term population-level benefit of their combined effects is viable. A deterministic sex-structured model is formulated, the expected lifetime disease reproductive output of an individual (or epidemiological birth) is determined, and the stability of steady states is investigated. To complement HIV treatment with antiretrovirals, which is not yet fully accessible to all those in need, microbicides and nontherapeutic measures such as male circumcision and condoms provide additional potential impact on curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS.