Table of Contents
ISRN Bioinformatics
Volume 2012, Article ID 537217, 12 pages
Research Article

Dynamic Clustering of Gene Expression

1Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
2Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

Received 11 July 2012; Accepted 5 August 2012

Academic Editors: T. Can, Z. Gáspári, and A. Pulvirenti

Copyright © 2012 Lingling An and R. W. Doerge. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is well accepted that genes are simultaneously involved in multiple biological processes and that genes are coordinated over the duration of such events. Unfortunately, clustering methodologies that group genes for the purpose of novel gene discovery fail to acknowledge the dynamic nature of biological processes and provide static clusters, even when the expression of genes is assessed across time or developmental stages. By taking advantage of techniques and theories from time frequency analysis, periodic gene expression profiles are dynamically clustered based on the assumption that different spectral frequencies characterize different biological processes. A two-step cluster validation approach is proposed to statistically estimate both the optimal number of clusters and to distinguish significant clusters from noise. The resulting clusters reveal coordinated coexpressed genes. This novel dynamic clustering approach has broad applicability to a vast range of sequential data scenarios where the order of the series is of interest.