Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2012, Article ID 548256, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/548256
Research Article

Heavy Metal Quantification in Renal Tissue of Patients in the State of Yucatan and Its Association with Urolithiasis

1Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Campus for Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Periferico Nte. 33.5 km, Tablaje Catastral 13615, Colonia Hidalgo Chuburna Inn., 97203 Mérida, YUC, Mexico
2Research Laboratory “Agustin O'Horan” Hospital, Health Services of the State Government of Yucatan, 97000 Mérida, YUC, Mexico

Received 7 July 2012; Accepted 29 August 2012

Academic Editors: K. M. Erikson and R. Mateo

Copyright © 2012 Luis A. May-Ix et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A possible cause associated with urinary lithiasis (UL) is the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the kidney. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Cu, Pb, and Cd in kidney tissues removed from patients with nephrological problems and associate it with UL. Samples of 50 kidney sections from patients were analyzed. Results were statistically analyzed using a fixed effects model including the overall mean, the effect of the health status of patients (with or without UL), gender (male and female), the interaction between both factors and the random error . Cu level was  mg/kg (mean DS) and 25.5% of samples had levels above normal. Lead content in 97.9% of the samples (  mg/kg) was above normal. All results of Cd (  mg/kg) were below the maximum permissible limits. There was no difference in the amount of heavy metals on patients with or without UL ( ) nor depending on the gender ( ). It was concluded that there is no apparent relationship between a very elevated level of Cu or Pb in the kidney on the development of UL.