Table 7: Common carriers of nanomedicines.

Sl. No.Name of the carrierDefinitionExplanation and advantages

(1)LiposomeSpherical vesicle with a phospholipid bilayerIt is used to convey vaccines, drugs, enzymes, or other substances to organs

(2)Polymer miscellesNano-sized particle (~10 to ~100 nm) composed of block or graft copolymers, typically having a so-called core-shell structure. The core contains the drugs, while the shell interacts with the solvent making the nanoparticle stable in the liquidEspecially useful for poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical active ingredients. The stability of the drug is also increased. Undesirable side effects are lessened, as contact of the drug with enzymes in biological fluids is minimized

(3)DendrimerA macromolecule with highly branched 3D structure, consisting of three main components: core, branches and end groups, and providing a high degree of surface functionality and versatility. It originates from the Greek dendron, meaning “tree”It is small enough to enter cells carrying the drug. It has a great potential in drug nanoformulations for melanoma therapy owing to advantages, such as thermodynamic stability, high solubility in water, the controllable size (usually 1 to over 10 nm), morphology and functional groups on the surface, and uniform size distribution