Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 575292, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/575292
Review Article

A Review of Use of Enantiomers in Homeopathy

National Institute of Integrative Medicine, 759 Burwood Road, Hawthorn East, Melbourne, VIC 3123, Australia

Received 30 March 2012; Accepted 15 May 2012

Academic Editors: T. Kaji and K. Oguma

Copyright © 2012 R. M. Kuzeff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. V. Bonamin and P. C. Endler, “Animal models for studying homeopathy and high dilutions: conceptual critical review,” Homeopathy, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 37–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. M. Kuzeff, “Treatment of effect of chemicals with their ultradilute stereoisomers,” PCT/AU2003/000219, 2003.
  3. R. M. Kuzeff, M. N. Topashka-Ancheva, and R. P. Mecheva, “Inhibition of (-)-propranolol hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 309–314, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. M. Kuzeff, R. P. Mecheva, and M. N. Topashka-Ancheva, “Inhibition of (-)-propranolol hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice—a placebo-controlled randomized study,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. M. Kuzeff, M. N. Topashka-Ancheva, and R. P. Mecheva, “Inhibition of (-)-trans-(1S,2S)-U50488 hydrochloride by its enantiomer in white mice—a placebo-controlled, randomized study,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 144–149, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. M. Kuzeff, M. Topashka-Ancheva, and R. Metcheva, “Isopathic versus enantiomeric inhibition of U-50488 HCl toxicity—experimental studies,” Homeopathy, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 83–87, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. M. Kuzeff, “Method of treatment with potentised stereoisomer of glutamate,” PCT/AU2008/001611, 2008.
  8. R. M. Kuzeff, “Treatment of effect of chemicals with their ultradilute stereoisomers,” United States patent application 10/505,956, United States Patent 8,071,630, 2011.
  9. D. T. Reilly, M. A. Taylor, C. McSharry, and T. Aitchison, “Is homoeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homoeopathic potency, with pollen in hayfever as model,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8512, pp. 881–886, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Watson, A Guide to the Methodologies of Homeopathy, Cutting Edge, Totnes, UK, 2004.
  11. R. Sankaran, The Spirit of Homeopathy, Homeopathic Medical Publishers, Bombay, India, 1992.
  12. R. Sankaran, The Substance of Homeopathy, Homoeopathic Medical Publishers, Bombay, India, 1994.
  13. R. Sankaran, The Soul of the Remedies, Homoeopathic Medical Publishers, Bombay, India, 1997.
  14. R. M. Kuzeff, “Homeopathy, sensation of well-being and CD4 levels: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Deroukakis, “Selection of potencies by medical and non-medical homeopaths: a survey,” Homeopathy, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 150–155, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Y. Aboul-Enein and I. W. Wainer, The Impact of Stereochemistry on Drug Development and Use, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1997.
  17. A. Palmer, “Diagram of Optical Isomer,” 2008, http://wikidoc.org/index.php/File:Chiral.svg.
  18. M. L. Dhawale, Principles and Practice of Homeopathy, Institute of Clinical Research, Bombay, India, 1985.
  19. K. Gruiz, M. Molnar, C. Hadjú, M. Tolner, and R. M. Kuzeff, “Homeopathic treatment of (-)-nicotine toxicity—experimental studies in Daphnia magna,” Filed as Appendix E in Response to USPTO Office Action for US Patent Application Number 10/505,956, December 2010.
  20. K. Gruiz, M. Molnar, C. Hadjú, M. Tolner, and R. M. Kuzeff, “Homeopathic treatment of (-)-nicotine toxicity—experimental studies on vibrio fischeri by testing bioluminescence inhibition,” Filed as Appendix D in Response to USPTO Office Action for US Patent Application Number 10/505,956, December 2010.
  21. R. M. Kuzeff, M. Topashka-Ancheva, and R. P. Mecheva, “Isopathic versus enantiomeric treatment of toxicity—experimental studies—the example of U-50488,” Filed in Appendix B, US patent application no 10/505,956 applicant response 30 December 2010.
  22. G. C. Whittow, Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, vol. 2, Academic Press, London, UK, 1971.
  23. S. K. Joshi and G. F. Gebhart, “Nonopioid actions of U50,488 enantiomers contribute to their peripheral cutaneous antinociceptive effects,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 305, no. 3, pp. 919–924, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. V. Bonamin, K. S. Martinho, A. L. Nina, F. Caviglia, and R. G. W. Do Rio, “Very high dilutions of dexamethasone inhibit its pharmacological effects in vivo,” Homeopathy, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 198–203, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. C. Endler, R. Lüdtke, C. Heckmann et al., “Pretreatment with thyroxine (10-8 parts by weight) enhances a 'curative' effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxine (10-13) on lowland frogs,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 137–142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. Jonas, Y. Lin, and F. Tortella, “Neuroproctection from glutamate toxicity with ultra-low dose glutamate,” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 335–339, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Pfleger, J. Hofäcker, W. Scherer-Pongratz, H. Lothaller, C. Reich, and P. C. Endler, “The effect of extremely diluted agitated gibberellic acid (10–30) on wheat stalk growth—a two researcher pilot study,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 164–169, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. U. Welles, P. C. Endler, W. Scherer-Pongratz et al., “Pretreatment with thyroxin 10-8 and the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin 10-30 on highland frogs—a multi-researcher study,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 353–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. P. Mason and A. J. Hutt, “Stereochemical aspects of drug metabolism,” in The Impact of Stereochemistry on Drug Development and Use, H. Y. Aboul-Enein and I. W. Wainer, Eds., vol. 695, pp. 45–46, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. Gu and J. W. Grant, “Effects of crystal structure and physical properties on the release of chiral drugs,” in Chirality in Drug Design and Development, I. K. Reddy and R. Mehvar, Eds., pp. 1–444, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  31. K. Gruiz, M. Molnar, C. Hadjú, M. Tolner, and R. M. Kuzeff, “Glutamic acid experiments by Vibrio fischeri,” R. M Kuzeff, Ed., 2010. View at Google Scholar
  32. O. Kozlova, M. Zwinderman, and N. Christofi, “A new short-term toxicity assay using Aspergillus awamori with recombinant aequorin gene,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 5, article 40, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Gruiz, M. Molnar, C. Hadjú, M. Tolner, and R. M. Kuzeff, “Glutamic acid experiments with enantiomers,” In Kuzeff R. M. Filed as Appendix C in Response to Office Action for US Patent Application Number 10/505,956, December 2010.
  34. P. S. Chikramane, A. K. Suresh, J. R. Bellare, and S. G. Kane, “Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective,” Homeopathy, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 231–242, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. OECD, 202 OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. 4 April 2004. Daphnia Sp., Acute Immobilisation Test and Reproduction Test—Part 1- the 24th EC 50 Acute Immobilisation Test, 2011.
  36. O. Kozlova-Zwinderman, Calcium measurement in living filamentous fungi expressing codon-optimised aequorin [Ph.D. thesis], University of Edinburgh, 2002.
  37. D. S. Bush, “Calcium regulation in plant cells and its role in signaling,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 46, pp. 95–122, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  38. O. Kozlova-Zwinderman, “Eukaryotic biosensor making use of a calcium regulated light emitting enzyme,” International Application Patent PCT/GB2003/005272, 2004.
  39. G. Nelson, O. Kozlova-Zwinderman, A. J. Collis et al., “Calcium measurements in living filamentous fungi expressing codon-optimized aequorin,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1437–1450, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Ennis, “Basophil models of homeopathy: a sceptical view,” Homeopathy, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. O. Kozlova-Zwinderman, N. Christofi, and R. M. Kuzeff, “Experiments with an Aspergillus awamori biosensor using enantiomers”.
  42. C. Henniger and G. King, “Fundamentals of the application of potency chords,” Biomedical Therapy, vol. 26, pp. 147–150, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. Henniger, “Q-Potenzen und Potenzenakkorde—eine Parallelentwicklung,” AHZ, vol. 248, pp. 132–140, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  44. H. Walach, W. B. Jonas, J. Ives, R. Van Wijk, and O. Weingärtner, “Research on homeopathy: state of the art,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 813–829, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Franckowiak, M. Bechem, M. Schramm, and G. Thomas, “The optical isomers of the 1,4-dihydropyridine BAY K 8644 show opposite effects on Ca channels,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 223–226, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Baumgartner, “The state of basic research in homeopathy,” in New Directions in Homeopathy Research—Advice from an Interdisciplinary Conference, S. Baumgartner, Ed., pp. 107–130, KVC, Essen, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  47. F. Wiegant, W. Kramers, and R. van-Wijk, “The importance of patient selection,” in Clinical Research in Complementary Medicine, G. Lewith, W. Jonas, and H. Walach, Eds., Chapter 9, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  48. T. E. Whitmarsh, D. M. Coleston-Shields, and T. J. Steiner, “Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of homoeopathic prophylaxis of migraine,” Cephalalgia, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 600–604, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. T. Kainz, G. Kozel, M. Haidvogl, and J. Smolle, “Homoeopathic versus placebo therapy of children with warts on the hands: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial,” Dermatology, vol. 193, no. 4, pp. 318–320, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. T. Kent and E. Danciger, Repertory of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica and a Word Index, Homoeopathic Book Service, London, UK, 1986.
  51. P. Endler, K. Thieves, C. Reich et al., “Repetitions of fundamental research models for homeopathically prepared dilutions beyond 10–23: a bibliometric study,” Homeopathy, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. L. Kendig, H. H. Le, and S. M. Belcher, “Defining hormesis: evaluation of a complex concentration response phenomenon,” International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 235–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. D. Beck, E. J. Calabrese, T. M. Slayton, and R. Rudel, “The use of toxicology in the regulatory process,” in Principles and Methods of Toxicology, A. W. Hayes, Ed., pp. 84–2270, CRC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. E. J. Calabrese, “The maturing of hormesis as a credible dose-response model,” Nonlinearity in Biology, Toxicology and Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 319–343, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. R. T. Davidson, C. Crawford, J. A. Ives, and W. B. Jonas, “Homeopathic treatments in psychiatry: a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled studies,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 795–805, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. J. Mathew, K. Keegan, and L. Smith, “Glutamate modulators as novel interventions for mood disorders,” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. L. Johnson and A. Shekhar, “Panic-prone state induced in rats with GABA dysfunction in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is mediated by NMDA receptors,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 26, pp. 7093–7104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Paslakis, P. Gass, and M. Deuschle, “The role of the glutamatergic system in pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy for depression: preclinical and clinical data,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 204–212, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. M. Myers, W. A. Carlezon, and M. Davis, “Glutamate receptors in extinction and extinction-based therapies for psychiatric illness,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 274–293, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. A. Lipton, “Failures and successes of NMDA receptor antagonists: molecular basis for the use of open-channel blockers like memantine in the treatment of acute and chronic neurologic insults,” NeuroRx, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 101–110, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. A. Hawkins, R. L. O'Kane, I. A. Simpson, and J. R. Viña, “Structure of the blood-brain barrier and its role in the transport of amino acids,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 218S–226S, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. Chakrabarty, S. Bhattacharyya, R. Christopher, and S. Khanna, “Glutamatergic dysfunction in OCD,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1735–1740, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. H. Walsh and C. J. McDougle, “Psychotherapy and medication management strategies for obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Journal of Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 7, pp. 485–494, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  64. A. Markou, “Metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists: novel therapeutics for nicotine dependence and depression?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Q. Wang, Q. Tang, N. K. Parelkar et al., “Glutamate signaling to Ras-MAPK in striatal neurons: mechanisms for inducible gene expression and plasticity,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. E. Chavez-Noriega, H. Schaffhauser, and U. C. Campbell, “Metabotropic glutamate receptors: potential drug targets for the treatment of schizophrenia,” Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 261–281, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. E. Chavez-Noriega, M. J. Marino, H. Schaffhauser, U. C. Campbell, and P. J. Conn, “Novel potential therapeutics for schizophrenia: focus on the modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor function,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9–34, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  68. P. N. Vinson and P. J. Conn, “Metabotropic glutamate receptors as therapeutic targets for schizophrenia,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1461–1472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. J. Conn, C. W. Lindsley, and C. K. Jones, “Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors as a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. K.-V. Sendt, G. Giaroli, and D. K. Tracy, “Beyond dopamine: glutamate as a target for future antipsychotics,” ISRN Pharmacology, vol. 2012, Article ID 427267, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. G. B. Kauffmann, “The discovery of optically active coordination compounds: a milestone in stereochemistry,” Isis, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 38–62, 1975. View at Google Scholar