Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 601810, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/601810
Research Article

Epithelial Cell Dissemination and Readhesion: Analysis of Factors Contributing to Metastasis Formation in Breast Cancer

1Department of Experimental Heamatology and Oncology, Clinic for Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
2Transfusion Center Bayreuth, D-95448 Bayreuth, Germany

Received 26 October 2011; Accepted 30 November 2011

Academic Editors: V. M. Golubovskaya and R. S. Samant

Copyright © 2012 Katya Hekimian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Baum, H. Thornton, P. C. Gøtzsche et al., “Breast cancer awareness month. Still awaiting screening facts,” British Medical Journal, vol. 341, Article ID c6152, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Autier, M. Boniol, A. Gavin, and L. J. Vatten, “Breast cancer mortality in neighbouring European countries with different levels of screening but similar access to treatment: trend analysis of WHO mortality database,” British Medical Journal, vol. 343, no. 7818, Article ID d4411, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. D. Puliti, G. Miccinesi, and E. Paci, “Overdiagnosis in breast cancer: design and methods of estimation in observational studies,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 131–133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. E. E. Tyzer, “Factors in the production and growth of tumor metastases,” The Journal of Medical Research, vol. 28, pp. 309–332, 1913. View at Google Scholar
  5. E. R. Fisher and R. B. Turnbull Jr., “Cytologic demonstration and significance of tumor cells in the mesenteric venous blood in patients with colorectal carcinoma,” Surgery Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol. 100, pp. 102–108, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  6. E. Hansen, N. Wolff, R. Knuechel et al., “Tumor cells in blood shed from the surgical field,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 387–393, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. T. F. van der Gun, L. J. Melchers, M. H. Ruiters, L. F. M. H. de Leij, P. M. J. McLaughlin, and M. G. Rots, “EpCAM in carcinogenesis: the good, the bad or the ugly,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1913–1921, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. G. Spizzo, P. Went, S. Dirnhofer et al., “High Ep-CAM expression is associated with poor prognosis in node-positive breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 207–213, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. A. Lugli, S. Meier, M. Bundi et al., “Frequent EpCam protein expression in human carcinomas,” Human Pathology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 122–128, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Baizar, M. J. Winter, C. J. de Boer, and S. V. Litvinov, “The biology of the 17-1A antigen (Ep-CAM),” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 699–712, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. A. Osta, Y. Chen, K. Mikhitarian et al., “EpCAM is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a potential target for breast cancer gene therapy,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 16, pp. 5818–5824, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. S. V. Litvinov, M. P. Velders, H. A. Bakker, G. J. Fleuren, and S. O. Warnaar, “Ep-CAM: a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 437–446, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. G. Rao, D. Chianese, G. V. Doyle et al., “Expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells present in blood and primary and metastatic tumors,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Griffon-Etienne, Y. Boucher, C. Brekken, H. D. Suit, and R. K. Jain, “Taxane-induced apoptosis decompresses blood vessels and lowers interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors: clinical implications,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 15, pp. 3776–3782, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. A. Liotta, M. G. Saidel, and J. Kleinerman, “The significance of hematogenous tumor cell clumps in the metastatic process,” Cancer Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 889–894, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Langer and C. Bokemeyer, “Crosstalk between cancer and haemostasis. Implications for cancer biology and cancer-associated thrombosis with focus on tissue factor,” Hämostaseologie, vol. 31, no. 4, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. N. Khabaz, J. McClure, S. McClure, and R. W. Stoddart, “Glycophenotype of prostatic carcinomas,” Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 637–645, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. Z. Pályi-Krekk, M. Barok, J. Isola, M. Tammi, J. Szöllosi, and P. Nagy, “Hyaluronan-induced masking of ErbB2 and CD44-enhanced trastuzumab internalisation in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 2423–2433, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. K. Hekimian, E. L. Stein, U. Pachmann, and K. Pachmann, “Demasking of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) on circulating epithelial tumor cells by Tween 20 treatment in breast cancer patients,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. K. Pachmann, J. H. Clement, C. P. Schneider et al., “Standardized quantification of circulating peripheral tumor cells from lung and breast cancer,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 617–627, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. U. Pachmann, K. Hekimian et al., “Comparing sequential steps for detection of circulating tumor cells: more specific or just less sensitive?” WebmedCentral Cancer, vol. 2, no. 2, Article ID WMC001490, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. K. Pachmann, O. Camara, A. Kavallaris et al., “Monitoring the response of circulating epithelial tumor cells to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer allows detection of patients at risk of early relapse,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1208–1215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. K. Podsypanina, Y. C. N. Du, M. Jechlinger, L. J. Beverly, D. Hambardzumyan, and H. Varmus, “Seeding and propagation of untransformed mouse mammary cells in the lung,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5897, pp. 1841–1844, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. M. Retsky, R. Demicheli, and W. J. M. Hrushesky, “Does surgery induce angiogenesis in breast cancer? Indirect evidence from relapse pattern and mammography paradox,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 179–187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. O. Camara, A. Kavallaris, H. Nöschel, M. Rengsberger, C. Jörke, and K. Pachmann, “Seeding of epithelial cells into circulation during surgery for breast cancer: the fate of malignant and benign mobilized cells,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 4, article 67, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. O. Camara, M. Rengsberger, A. Egbe et al., “The relevance of circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETC) for therapy monitoring during neoadjuvant (primary systemic) chemotherapy in breast cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1484–1492, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. A. U. Buzdar, S. E. Singletary, V. Valero et al., “Evaluation of paclitaxel in adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with operable breast cancer: preliminary data of a prospective randomized trial,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1073–1079, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Rouzier, L. Pusztai, S. Delaloge et al., “Nomograms to predict pathologic complete response and metastasis-free survival after preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 33, pp. 8331–8339, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. C. Liedtke, C. Mazouni, K. R. Hess et al., “Response to neoadjuvant therapy and long-term survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1275–1281, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. R. A. Whipple, M. A. Matrone, E. H. Cho et al., “Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes tubulin detyrosination and microtentacles that enhance endothelial engagement,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 8127–8137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. M. A. Matrone, R. A. Whipple, E. M. Balzer, and S. S. Martin, “Microtentacles tip the balance of cytoskeletal forces in circulating tumor cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 7737–7741, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. H. Thurm, S. Ebel, C. Kentenich et al., “Rare expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule on residual micrometastatic breast cancer cells after adjuvant chemotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 2598–2604, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. W. Retsky, R. Demicheli, W. J.M. Hrushesky, M. Baum, and I. D. Gukas, “Dormancy and surgery-driven escape from dormancy help explain some clinical features of breast cancer,” Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavia, vol. 116, no. 7-8, pp. 730–741, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. P. E. Goss and A. F. Chambers, “Does tumour dormancy offer a therapeutic target?” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 871–877, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed