Table of Contents
ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2012, Article ID 604241, 11 pages
Research Article

An Overview on Nanocrystalline ZnFe2O4, MnFe2O4, and CoFe2O4 Synthesized by a Thermal Treatment Method

1Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

Received 5 April 2012; Accepted 6 May 2012

Academic Editors: G. H. Lee, G. Li, V. Popok, and J. J. Suñol

Copyright © 2012 Mahmoud Goodarz Naseri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study reports the simple synthesis of MFe2O4 (where M=Zn, Mn, and Co) nanoparticles by a thermal treatment method, followed by calcination at various temperatures from 723 to 873 K. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was used as a capping agent to stabilize the particles and prevent them from agglomeration. The characterization studies were conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average particle sizes were obtained by TEM images, which were in good agreement with the XRD results. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the calcined samples. Magnetic properties were demonstrated by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which displayed that the calcined samples exhibited superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviors.