Table of Contents
ISRN Zoology
Volume 2012, Article ID 635096, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/635096
Research Article

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Subtribe Ageroniina with Special Emphasis on Hamadryas (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) with an Identification Key to the Species of Hamadryas

Zoocriadero de Mariposas, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San José, Costa Rica

Received 4 November 2011; Accepted 14 December 2011

Academic Editors: H. W. Cheng, S. Van Nouhuys, and S. P. Henzi

Copyright © 2012 Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A cladistic analysis of the genus Hamadryas was done in order to answer two questions: is the genus Hamadryas monophyletic and, what characters best define the different species groups of the genus? The computer programs WinClada ver. 1.00.08 and Nona ver. 2.8 for phylogenetic analysis were used. The 20 species of Hamadryas were analyzed together with Ectima erycinoides, Batesia hypochlora and Panacea procilla; these four genera together form the sub-tribe Ageronina of the subfamily Biblidinae. These 23 species with a total of 66 characters were included in the data matrix: 43 of external morphology, two from the fore wing spiral organ (responsible for sound production), and 20 of the male genitalia. Three different analyses, including all of the non-Hamadryas, using each species as the out-group, were done in order to compare results. A fourth analysis, using only Ectima erycinoides as an out group, was done in order to verify and compare the species groups of Hamadryas Also, three different phylogenetic attributes were mapped: biogeography, palatability and capacity to produce sound signals. An identification key to all the species of Hamadryas was prepared. All the analysis done combining Hamadryas with the other three genera suggests that Hamadryas as currently defined is polyphyletic.